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  • Hefra - About batteries: the secondary cell
    Hybride batteries Recombination VRLA vs AGM en GEL Gel batteries AGM batteries TPPL thin plate pure lead Battery type application In a voltaic pile electricity is generated by chemical reaction and once exhausted the pile cannot be recharged This is called a primary cell In 1803 The German physicist Johann Wilhelm Ritter built a voltaic pile in reverse The Ritter Pile consisted of copper discs only also here separated by layers of substance or cardboard soaked in a saline solution The column of Ritter could store electric energy but not produce it That is what we call a secondary cell storage battery or accumulator The electricity necessary to charge the Ritter pile could only be obtained from a primary power source such as a voltaic pile That made Ritter s discovery interesting but of little practical use 1854 brought an important development The German doctor and scientist Joseph Sinsteden placed two lead plates in a container with dilute sulphuric acid The sulfuric acid reacted with the surface of the plates and formed a layer of lead sulphate Sinsteden connected the plates to a primary power source and saw a layer of lead oxide forming on one plate and spongy lead

    Original URL path: http://www.hefra.nl/docs/webshop.asp?act=doc&id=4806 (2016-05-01)
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  • Hefra - About batteries: the Planté plate
    practical use in which the lead plates were rolled into coils separated by strips of felt In the Planté cell we see the features of today s lead acid battery dilute sulphuric acid in which two lead plates covered by lead sulphate The lead sheet is only used as a conductor the lead sulphate is where actual process takes place and this is why it is called the active mass

    Original URL path: http://www.hefra.nl/docs/webshop.asp?act=doc&id=4808 (2016-05-01)
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  • Hefra - About batteries: the pasted plate
    antimony batteries Low antimony batteries Calcium batteries Hybride batteries Recombination VRLA vs AGM en GEL Gel batteries AGM batteries TPPL thin plate pure lead Battery type application In Europe Emile Alphonse Fauré made a lead paste consisting of lead oxide sulphuric acid and water and applied it to lead plates which after drying were then covered with lead sulphate One single charge gave the Fauré plate a capacity many times that of a Planté plate Unfortunately the adhesion of the active mass on the smooth plate surface was not very durable and already after a few cycles the battery became unusable The solution came at the same time from two different sides John Scudamore Sellon and Ernest Volckmar produced both a perforated plate of lead with antimony in which the lead paste of Fauré held much better This is the same pasted grid plate which is still used in all flat plate batteries The new technologies and in particular the construction of the plates were protected by a large number of complex patents For this reason many producers were looking for a replacement for lead oxide as a starting material Around 1889 lead chloride was used by Clement Payen in

    Original URL path: http://www.hefra.nl/docs/webshop.asp?act=doc&id=4810 (2016-05-01)
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  • Hefra - About batteries: the tubular plate
    TPPL thin plate pure lead Battery type application In the Electrical world 1890 Volume 16 a Mr S Currie is reported yo have designed a tubular positive plate The plate derives its strength from tubes filled with active mass in which a lead spine serves as a conductor In this design mechanical strength and electrical conductivity are separated in contrast to the grid plate which has to do both support

    Original URL path: http://www.hefra.nl/docs/webshop.asp?act=doc&id=4812 (2016-05-01)
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  • Hefra - About batteries: historical context
    the need arose for a better power source than a primary battery This development had already been started by Michael Faraday with his discovery of magnetic induction In 1866 Werner von Siemens and Charles Wheatstone presente simultaneously a practical design for a Dynamo Zénobe Gramme invented in 1871 the Gramme Dynamo which was the first to generate electricity on a commercial scale Gramme discovered by chance that when two Gramme

    Original URL path: http://www.hefra.nl/docs/webshop.asp?act=doc&id=4814 (2016-05-01)
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  • Hefra - About batteries: Lead-antimony batteries
    tubular plate Historical context Lead antimony batteries Low antimony batteries Calcium batteries Hybride batteries Recombination VRLA vs AGM en GEL Gel batteries AGM batteries TPPL thin plate pure lead Battery type application The basic principle of the convential battery is a grid plate casted from an alloy of lead and antimony sometimes up to 12 or more It is basically basically the same battery with pasted plates invented by Volckmar and Sellon 120 years ago The antimony strengthens the soft lead improves adhesion of active mass and protects against corrosion Often additional components such as selenium and arsenic are added in order to further improve the properties At the end of charge the antimony can produce a very poisonous gas called stibine or antimony hydride SbH3 It has the distinctive smell of rotten eggs Stibine is thermally not very stable it dissolves slowly at room temperature The decomposition products are hydrogen and metallic antimony The latter will be deposited on the negative plate As a result the gas voltage at the negative plate will be reduced with sometimes 200mV so the battery will produce more gases and thus consume more water At the same time the rate of self discharge

    Original URL path: http://www.hefra.nl/docs/webshop.asp?act=doc&id=4816 (2016-05-01)
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  • Hefra - Over accu's - Onderhoudsvrije lood-antimoon accu EN
    of the grid is reduced from 12 to 1 3 these low antimony batteries are sometimes called maintenance free to or DIN43539 2 or EN50342 1 However the standard EN50342 1 refers to a low water loss battery when the water consumption is less than 4g Ah Ce Low Maintenance battery is therefore the better term avoiding confusion with sealed maintenance free batteries MF and VRLA Typical characteristics of the

    Original URL path: http://www.hefra.nl/docs/webshop.asp?act=doc&id=4817 (2016-05-01)
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  • Hefra - Over accu's - Gesloten lood-calcium accu's EN
    pure lead Battery type application Around 1970 manufacturers started to replace the antimony by calcium in starter batteries Calcium in both the positive and the negative plates brings many advantages Low water consumption 1 g Ah Ce that is so low that the original quantity of electrolyte is sufficient to last the entire design life Many manufacturers enhance this feature by omitting the filler caps and leave only a charge indicator The term sealed maintenance free in short MF or SMF can lead to confusion with Gel or AGM batteries The electrolyte is in this type of batteries however not immobilized When over charged hydrogen will escape like in any flooded battery Long shelf life because of the extremely low rate of self discharge A fully charged calcium battery can be stored for over a year before it reaches 50 state of charge SOC sufficient to start deliver its cranking power Low internal resistance This allows the calcium battery to deliver its cranking power very fast It also makes the battery accept high charging currents takin less time to recharge This low internal resistance also has a downside deep discharge may cause a vehement chemical reaction at the positive plate

    Original URL path: http://www.hefra.nl/docs/webshop.asp?act=doc&id=4819 (2016-05-01)
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