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  • Hefra - About batteries - Hybride batteries
    plate The tubular plate Historical context Lead antimony batteries Low antimony batteries Calcium batteries Hybride batteries Recombination VRLA vs AGM en GEL Gel batteries AGM batteries TPPL thin plate pure lead Battery type application In hybrid batteries we see a combination of the cyclic performance of the lead antimony batterie and the low self discharge of its calcium counterpart a positive plate of low antimony alloy for better resistance to

    Original URL path: http://www.hefra.nl/docs/webshop.asp?act=doc&id=4821 (2016-05-01)
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  • Hefra - About batteries: recombinant batteries
    lead sulphate of the positive plate turned into lead dioxide whilst the lead sulphate on the negative plate turns into spongy lead At the end of charge oxygen is released at the positive plate and hydrogen at the negative plate When both gases can rise to the surface and leave the electrolyte there will be water loss and the battery will need to be refilled with water Due to the difference in charge acceptance between the positive and negative plate gas will be released at the positive plate slightly earlier than at the negative action By the time that oxygen is released on the positive plate already a fair amount of spongy lead has been formed on the negative plate So if we could bring about that the oxygen does not rise to the surface but instead travel to the negative plate it will react with this spongy lead and form lead oxide Subsequently the lead oxide will react with the electrolyte and turn into lead sulphate Lead oxide turning into lead sulphate is as we know the result of discharge So we may conclude that by bringing the oxygen from the positive plate into contact with the negative plate just before the latter reaches its gas voltage a self discharge will occur that is equivalent to the charge This means no gas voltage and therefore no water loss For whom all this is too much it should suffice to say that when oxygen can reach the negative plate it will ultimately recombining into water hence the name recombinant battery Recombinant batteries need for proper functioning some overpressure and are therefore sealed A self closing safety valve opens when the pressure exceeds preset level 0 18 bar and will close as soon as the balance is restored 0 15 bar

    Original URL path: http://www.hefra.nl/docs/webshop.asp?act=doc&id=4823 (2016-05-01)
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  • Hefra - About batteries: VRLA or Valve Regulated Lead Acid
    cell The Planté plate The pasted plate The tubular plate Historical context Lead antimony batteries Low antimony batteries Calcium batteries Hybride batteries Recombination VRLA vs AGM en GEL Gel batteries AGM batteries TPPL thin plate pure lead Battery type application Oddly enough recombinant batteries are seldom referred to as such but with the term VRLA Valve Regulated Lead Acid or SLA Sealed Lead Acid These terms refer to the safety valve and the sealed lid Both elements are important of course but only so because they allow the recombination process to take place The full name of a VRLA battery should be Valve Regulated Recombinant Lead Acid Battery To produce a recombinant battery is a more or less solid electrolyte is needed through which the oxygen can travel to the negative plate In time two techniques have been developed to immobilize the electrolyte Gel and AGM Both of these techniques serve the same purpose namely a maintenance free safe and sustainable energy source Both types have the sealed construction and the self closing pressure valve in commen The only but not insignificant difference lies in the electrolyte and the separators Because gel batteries are on the market for over 50

    Original URL path: http://www.hefra.nl/docs/webshop.asp?act=doc&id=4825 (2016-05-01)
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  • Hefra - About batteries - batteries with gelled electrolyte
    Low antimony batteries Calcium batteries Hybride batteries Recombination VRLA vs AGM en GEL Gel batteries AGM batteries TPPL thin plate pure lead Battery type application The development of a battery that would not spill electrolyte when damaged or falling over began shortly before the second world war in Germany In 1957 Otto Jache filed on behalf of the battery factory Sonnenschein the patent for an immobilized electrolyte by the addition of fumed silica which will thicken the electrolyte into a gelled substance much like petrol jelly Gel batteries are produced with flat plates as well as tubular plates Flat plates have microporous PVC separators that provide good protection against loss of active material albeit increasing internal resistance Addition of phosphoric acid in the electrolyte increases the cyclical ability but at the expense of an initial loss of capacity of around 15 which only will be restored after about 20 cycles respectively a year of float service Deep cycle To many a gel battery is automatically seen as a deep cycle battery suitable for deep discharge applications That s not necessarily the case Just as with the flooded lead acid batteries the deep cycle performance is determined by the construction of

    Original URL path: http://www.hefra.nl/docs/webshop.asp?act=doc&id=4827 (2016-05-01)
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  • Hefra - Over accu's - AGM EN
    developed a safe recombinant battery for the US Air Force with the emphasis on power to weight ratio This was accomplished by positive and negative plates of a calcium alloy separated by microporous glass fiber mats in which the electrolyte is absorbed by capillary action The technique is called therefore Absorbed Glass Matt or AGM Microporous glass mat separators consist of thin hollow tubes of unequal length These fiber mats are only for about 95 saturated with electrolyte the rest is used for the oxygen migration to the negative plate This technique is called Starved Electrolyte To compensate for the small quantity of absorbed electrolyte a Specific Gravity SG of 1 30 is used The principle of starved electrolyte has also a positive effect on the cycle life of the AGM battery When deeply discharged the small quantity of electrolyte will be exhausted before permanent damage is done Deep discharge Just as with Gel batteries many believe any AGM battery to be a deep cycle battery suitable for deep discharge applications That s not necessarily the case Just as with flooded batteries the deep cycle performance of a battery is determined by the construction of the plates not in any

    Original URL path: http://www.hefra.nl/docs/webshop.asp?act=doc&id=4829 (2016-05-01)
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  • Hefra - About batteries: Thin Plate Pure Lead (TPPL)
    Calcium batteries Hybride batteries Recombination VRLA vs AGM en GEL Gel batteries AGM batteries TPPL thin plate pure lead Battery type application A further step development AGM is Odyssey TPPL or Thin Plate Lead with flat 99 99 pure virgin not alloy Pure lead be made thinner so will fit the battery More battery plates mean plate surface area means more power twice much as batteries In fact these batteries are capable providing engine cranking pulses in excess 2250 amps for 5 seconds double triple that equally sized conventional batteries even at very low temperatures And they can handle 400 charge discharge cycles to 80 depth of discharge A further step in the development of AGM batteries is Odyssey TPPL or Thin Plate Pure Lead with flat plates made of 99 99 pure virgin lead not lead alloy Pure lead plates can be made thinner so more will fit in the battery More battery plates mean more plate surface area And that means more power twice as much as conventional batteries In fact these batteries are capable of providing engine cranking pulses in excess of 2250 amps for 5 seconds double to triple that of equally sized conventional batteries even

    Original URL path: http://www.hefra.nl/docs/webshop.asp?act=doc&id=4831 (2016-05-01)
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  • Hefra - Over accu's - Toepassingsgebieden EN
    these pages Looking at the field of application is another way of categorizing batteries Applications can be divided into three main categories and batteries are manufactured with these categories in mind Each Category will have one or more battery technologies that are most suitable plus a few cross overs which will offer an alternative in less demanding applications Starter batteries For starting combustion engines batteries have to release a lot of cranking power during a very limited period of time Lots of relatively thin plates are the key to this because they provide a large active surface for the electrochemical reaction to take place Deep cycle batteries Whereas the explosive discharge of a starter battery takes place at the surface the electrochemical reaction during deep discharge goes on at a slower rate but deep into the active mass until most of it is exhausted notably at the positive plate The charging and discharging of a positive plate involves lead sulphate is converted into lead dioxide and back again Since lead sulphate and lead dioxide have different molar volumes a deep cycle battery is subject to a considerable change in volume during each cycle It is no surprise that shedding of

    Original URL path: http://www.hefra.nl/docs/webshop.asp?act=doc&id=4833 (2016-05-01)
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  • Hefra - About chargers - 50 Hz Chargers
    About chargers 50 Hz Chargers 50 Hz Chargers High frequency chargers Microprocessor controlled Float charging Traction chargers Hybrid chargers Supply mode 50 Hz Chargers Classic 50 Hz chargers are also referred to as linear or ferroresonant chargers A transformer and rectifier transform the input AC voltage into a lower voltage DC Voltage fluctuations at the primary input side are passed on to the secondary output side causing a ripple that

    Original URL path: http://www.hefra.nl/docs/webshop.asp?act=doc&type=ladersLineaireladers (2016-05-01)
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