archive-nl.com » NL » M » METAFYSICA.NL

Total: 972

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • Philosophy

    (No additional info available in detailed archive for this subpage)
    Original URL path: (2016-02-01)



  • contents
    its Elements Principle of Individuation The Chemical Bond Crystals and Metaphysics Non living Dissipative Systems Organisms I Organisms II Organisms III Organisms IV Digital Computer I Digital Computer II Metaphysics of Artificial Life A Supplementary Approach Mereotopology of Reality Metaphysics and Quantum Mechanics Classical Series Introduction to the Classical Theory of Being Criteria for to be a Substance What is an Individuum I What is an Individuum II What is an Individuum III What is a Totality Essence in the Thomistic View Essence and Universal in the Thomistic View The Analogy of Being Medium independency In what way do the Elements exist in the Mixtum Critical Series Introduction to the Critical Series The Substance Accident Metaphysics and the totally Dynamic World The Substance Accident Metaphysics and the Theory of Knowledge The Species Individuum Structure The Mind Body Problem Historical Individuum Here and now Individuum The Nominalistic Critique The Distinction between Substance Essence Genuine Property and State Structural Levels Cross roads What to do next Further elaborate the general Theory of Being or delving deeper into Symmetry as one of the products of dynamical systems Special Series e mail lovelace hetnet nl The Structure of Crystals Revisited The Morphology of Crystals Derivation of Crystal Classes I Derivation of Crystal Classes II Derivation of Crystal Classes III Derivation of Crystal Classes IV Derivation of Crystal Classes V Derivation of Crystal Classes VI Isometric Crystal System Tetragonal Crystal System I Class 4 m 2 m 2 m Tetragonal Crystal System II Class 4 m m Tetragonal Crystal System III Class 4 2m Tetragonal Crystal System IV Class 4 m Tetragonal Crystal System V Class 4 Tetragonal Crystal System VI Class 4 2 2 Tetragonal Crystal System VII Class 4 Hexagonal Crystal System I Class 6 m 2 m 2 m Hexagonal Crystal System II Class 6 m m Hexagonal Crystal System III Class 6 m Hexagonal Crystal System IV Class 6 Hexagonal Crystal System V Class 6 2 2 Hexagonal Crystal System VI Class 3 2 m Hexagonal Crystal System VII Class 3 Hexagonal Crystal System VIII Class 6 m 2 Hexagonal Crystal System IX Class 3 m Hexagonal Crystal System X Class 6 Hexagonal Crystal System XI Class 3 Hexagonal Crystal System XII Class 3 2 Orthorhombic Crystal System I Class 2 m 2 m 2 m Orthorhombic Crystal System II Class m m 2 Orthorhombic Crystal System III Class 2 2 2 Monoclinic Crystal System I Class 2 m Monoclinic Crystal System II Class 2 Monoclinic Crystal System III Class m Triclinic Crystal System I Class 1 Triclinic Crystal System II Class 1 Internal Structure of Crystals I The five fundamental 2 D lattice types Internal Structure of Crystals II 2 D periodic patterns P2 P1 P4mm P4gm P4 Internal Structure of Crystals III 2 D periodic patterns P2mm P2mg P2gg Internal Structure of Crystals IV 2 D periodic patterns C2mm Pm Pg Cm Internal Structure of Crystals V 2 D periodic patterns P6mm P6 P3m1 Internal Structure of Crystals VI

    Original URL path: http://www.metafysica.nl/contents.html (2016-02-01)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Philosophy of Being and Essence
    as a result it is then like all other inorganic molecules a true Substance Although as such it connects with inorganic molecules also being true Substances it is such that it cannot passively exist in the Explicate Order as can inorganic molecules but must actively maintain itself by having been transformed into a strategy to exist To realize this the living molecule is embedded in an aquous serum like support medium which is the living molecule s most immediate existential condition and which mediates traffic import and export of matter and energy with the true outside world So the organism is a giant true molecule embedded in the mentioned support medium which is everywhere in physical contact with the living molecule And the latter is the organism s true self telling the support medium what to do in order to preserve the living molecule This exposition of Unimol is then still in Sixth Part of Website followed by a most fundamental theory about ultimate reality The latter is described as a discrete network of quality points The primitive qualitative content of such a point may be exchanged for another such content according to rules that in fact regulate the projection of forms from the Implicate Order into the Explicate Order The World Cellular Automaton This then forms the conclusion of Sixth Part of Website We are still thinking whether it would be interesting to compare all our findings dynamical systems inorganic and organic Substance Explicate Implicate Order organic evolution Unimol and the discrete structure of ultimate Reality with an exposition of the original aristotelian metaphysics theory of Being qua Being as masterly interpreted by J Owens For us it is not about exegesis of some ancient text but simply to find a good theory of Being And indeed the best theory of Being might according to us be its original version as it was laid down by Aristotle himself in his Metaphysics Here thinking about Being as Being was not yet biassed by parallel and confusing developments and indeed a metaphysics of Being in contrast to any brand of good natural science can well be developed undisturbedly from a still not yet sophisticated experience of the natural world When one wants to consult the Essays documents that come after those that treat of the internal structure of 2 D crystals one should click the last link in the left frame or the last link of the CONTENTS given below The complete contents of this website that is First Part of Website is one by one accessible by clicking the desired issues in the left frame An Overview including LINKS is also given below preceded by a COMPLETE well it must steadily be updated TABLE OF CONTENTS not given as links To skip this Overview click HERE For First Part of Website Click here for Complete Table of Contents of Total Website First Second Third Fourth and Fifth Parts After seeing this Overview close window to return Essays on the Theory of Being with emphasis on Modern Ideas based on some results of Mathematics Natural Science and Computer Science 1 Something about myself 2 An Essay on Being and Essence 3 General Considerations 3a Introduction and Overview 3b Status Quaestionis 4 The Totality or uniform Thing 5 The Realistic View of Knowledge 6 Substance and Accident 7 Revised Ontology of the Determinations Accidents of a Substance Part One 8 Revised Ontology of the Determinations Accidents of a Substance Part Two 9 Revised Ontology of the Determinations Accidents of a Substance Part Three 10 Reductionism versus Holism 11 The Universal 12 Dynamical Systems and the Metaphysics of Substance and Accident 13 Cellular Automata 14 Random Boolean Networks 15 L systems 16 The Mixtum and its Elements 17 The Principle of Individuation 18 The Chemical Bond 19 Crystals and the Substance Accident Metaphysics 20 Non living Dissipative Systems 21 Living Dissipative Systems Organisms Part One 22 Living Dissipative Systems Organisms Part Two 23 Living Dissipative Systems Organisms Part Three 24 Living Dissipative Systems Organisms Part Four 25 The Basic Structure of the Digital Computer Part One 26 The Basic Structure of the Digital Computer Part Two 27 The Ontological status of ARTIFICIAL LIFE creations 27 A Supplementary Approach Mereotopology of Reality 28 Metaphysics and Quantum Mechanics Essays on the Theory of Being with emphasis on Classical Philosophical Texts 1 CLASSICAL THEORY OF BEING Part I Introduction 2 CLASSICAL THEORY OF BEING Part II Substance 3 CLASSICAL THEORY OF BEING Part III Individuality 1 4 CLASSICAL THEORY OF BEING Part III Individuality 2 5 CLASSICAL THEORY OF BEING Part III Individuality 3 6 CLASSICAL THEORY OF BEING Part VI What is a Totality 7 CLASSICAL THEORY OF BEING Part V Essence in the Thomistic View 8 CLASSICAL THEORY OF BEING Part VI Essence and Universal in the Thomistic View 9 CLASSICAL THEORY OF BEING Part VII The Analogy of Being 10 CLASSICAL THEORY OF BEING Part VIII Medium independency 11 CLASSICAL THEORY OF BEING Part IX In what way do the Elements exist in the Mixtum Essays on Critical Issues concerning the very possibility of a Substance Accident Metaphysics 1 Introduction into the Critical Series 2 The Substance Accident Metaphysics and the totally dynamic World 3 The Substance Accident Metaphysics and the Theory of Knowledge 4 The Species Individuum Structure 5 The Mind Body Problem 6 Historical Individuum Here and now Individuum 7 The Nominalistic Critique 8 The Distinction between Substance Essence Genuine Property and State 9 Structural Levels 10 Cross roads What next Elaborate further on a general Theory of Being General Ontology or dig deeper into Symmetry as an all important product of dynamical systems Essays on the Theory of Crystals their internal and external structure and shapes including an exposition of all 32 Crystal Classes divided among six Crystal Systems and an ontological interpretation of several crystallographic phenomena 1 The Structure of Crystals Revisited 2 The Morphology of Crystals 2a Derivation of the 32 Crystal Classes Part One 2b Derivation of the 32 Crystal Classes Part Two 2c Derivation of the 32 Crystal Classes Part Three 2d Derivation of the 32 Crystal Classes Part Four 2e Derivation of the 32 Crystal Classes Part Five 2f Derivation of the 32 Crystal Classes Part Six 3 The Isometric Crystal System 4 The Tetragonal Crystal System Part One Class 4 m 2 m 2 m 5 The Tetragonal Crystal System Part Two Class 4 m m 6 The Tetragonal Crystal System Part Three Class 4 2 m 7 The Tetragonal Crystal System Part Four Class 4 m 8 The Tetragonal Crystal System Part Five Class 4 9 The Tetragonal Crystal System Part Six Class 4 2 2 10 The Tetragonal Crystal System Part Seven Class 4 11 The Hexagonal Crystal System Part One Class 6 m 2 m 2 m 12 The Hexagonal Crystal System Part Two Class 6 m m 13 The Hexagonal Crystal System Part Three Class 6 m 14 The Hexagonal Crystal System Part Four Class 6 15 The Hexagonal Crystal System Part Five Class 6 2 2 16 The Hexagonal Crystal System Part Six Class 3 2 m 17 The Hexagonal Crystal System Part Seven Class 3 18 The Hexagonal Crystal System Part Eight Class 6 m 2 19 The Hexagonal Crystal System Part Nine Class 3m 20 The Hexagonal Crystal System Part Ten Class 6 21 The Hexagonal Crystal System Part Eleven Class 3 22 The Hexagonal Crystal System Part Twelve Class 3 2 23 The Orthorhombic Crystal System Part One Class 2 m 2 m 2 m 24 The Orthorhombic Crystal System Part Two Class m m 2 25 The Orthorhombic Crystal System Part Three Class 2 2 2 26 The Monoclinic Crystal System Part One Class 2 m 27 The Monoclinic Crystal System Part Two Class 2 28 The Monoclinic Crystal System Part Three Class m 29 The Triclinic Crystal System Part One Class 1 30 The Triclinic Crystal System Part Two Class 1 31 The Internal Structure of Crystals Part One The five fundamental 2 D lattice types 32 The Internal Structure of Crystals Part Two 2 D periodic patterns P2 P1 P4mm P4gm P4 33 The Internal Structure of Crystals Part Three 2 D periodic patterns P2mm P2mg P2gg 34 The Internal Structure of Crystals Part Four 2 D periodic patterns C2mm Pm Pg Cm 35 The Internal Structure of Crystals Part Five 2 D periodic patterns P6mm P6 P3m1 36 The Internal Structure of Crystals Part Six 2 D periodic patterns P31m P3 37 The Internal Structure of Crystals Part Seven Summary of the 17 2 D periodic patterns 38 The Internal Structure of Crystals Part Eight 2 D Crystals Development of faces in P2 39 The Internal Structure of Crystals Part Nine 2 D Crystals Development of faces in P1 Pm 40 The Internal Structure of Crystals Part Ten 2 D Crystals Development of faces in Pg Pm Cm 41 The Internal Structure of Crystals Part Eleven 2 D Crystals Development of faces in P2mm P2gg 42 The Internal Structure of Crystals Part Twelve 2 D Crystals Development of faces in P2mg C2mm 43 The Internal Structure of Crystals Part Thirteen 2 D Crystals Development of faces in P4 P4mm 44 The Internal Structure of Crystals Part Fourteen 2 D Crystals Development of faces in P4gm 45 The Internal Structure of Crystals Part Fifteen 2 D Crystals Development of faces in P3 46 The Internal Structure of Crystals Part Sixteen 2 D Crystals Development of faces in P3 47 The Internal Structure of Crystals Part Seventeen 2 D Crystals Development of faces in P3m1 48 The Internal Structure of Crystals Part Eighteen 2 D Crystals Development of faces in P31m 49 The Internal Structure of Crystals Part Nineteen 2 D Crystals Development of faces in P6 50 The Internal Structure of Crystals Part Twenty 2 D Crystals Development of faces in P6mm 51 Continuation of this Site Second Part of Website 52 a HOLISTIC philosophy as an alternative world view Third Part of Website 53 General Ontology A Theory of Metaphysical Layers Fourth Part of Website 54 Aristotelian metaphysics revisited A Theory of Natures Combining this theory of Natures with that of the Implicate Order Application of this combined metaphysical theory to the EVOLUTION of INSECTS the Orders Diptera Hymenoptera Fifth Part of Website 55 Evolution of all INSECTS paleoentomology Evolution of the wings and the flight function in insects Insect evolution in terms of aut ecology and in terms of the Implicate and Explicate Orders The philosophy of inorganic Nature Inorganic and organic Substance Organic Substance the organism as a single molecule Unimol Ultimate Reality as being a discrete network of quality points The World Cellular Automaton Sixth Part of Website Something about myself As should be suspected from the title I am a philosopher But according to the theory expounded on this website I am a dissipative dynamical system But as such this system is only the outer appearance of me My specific Identity is the dynamical law of this system which unfortunately I cannot explicitly formulate so my real Identity necessarily remains a little obscure Because I happen to be not a member of a monovular twin my specific Identity is unique I graduated in Philosophy in 1988 at the University of Amsterdam Before I embarked on this study I had kept myself busy with the evolution of organisms especially Insects Their history goes back some 400 million years By ever broadening and thus generalizing my subject I finally ended up with Philosophy In my study I specialized in the philosophy of Being and Essence largely inspired by the works of Aristotle 4th century BC and the relevant works of St Thomas Aquinas Middle Ages 13th century This philosophy as I see it now embraces the Being and Essence of all natural objects including Man which is understood as situated fully within the confines of Nature just like all other objects That is what makes me a philosopher of nature and they seem to be rare on this planet But I can assure you I m not an alien And if for all that I am one without knowing it I m friendly After graduating I supplemented the acquired knowledge with some insights in the theory of dynamical systems and some computer programming Dynamical systems and their computer simulations like for example Cellular Automata seem to me not only essential for Natural Science Physics Chemistry and Biology in understanding how things work but also for Philosophy especially the theory of Being which tries to establish the general nature of things insofar as they are things in terms of intrinsic causes So I studied a good deal of Natural Science and in particular dynamical systems but only insofar as they are relevant to Philosophy After more ore less concluding these activities I felt ready to apply at the University of Nijmegen having no religious ties with it for writing a PHD about an updated version of the Metaphysics of Substance and Accident that is directly implied by a theory of Being and Essence My research tries to assess the general nature of the intrinsic essence of natural beings or in other words the intrinsic causes or principles of whatever uniform thing in contradistinction to just an aggregate of things This sounds perhaps very abstract or even mystical but in fact it is plain philosophy of Being in which I make use of a lot of relevant data from Natural Science and of some from Mathematics My approach is fairly unorthodox maybe because I am a descendant of the Sixties and selfwilled and on applying for writing a PHD I hoped my potential supervisors would not have too much trouble with that Indeed my supervising professor Professor L Heyde of the Philosophy Department of the University of Nijmegen Holland called me a rebel philosopher but after a year working with me he assured me that he had full confidence in me including confidence in my knowledge and philosophical use of Natural Science Dynamical Systems Biology etc Very unfortunately he died but the University found me another professor and even two co promotors with about the same interests and attitude appropriate to support and supervise me In April 2001 I completed my first draft of a dissertation PHD and I had to await its evaluation which took some time because it has some 500 pages to read Finally in December 2001 they provisionally approved of my text It took me another three months to correct it from occasional minor errors Then on their request I consulted some more literature Finally I added some further explanations and took care of the whole make up of the text In September 2002 I handed over the definitive text Now I have to await the formation of an independent manuscript committee for final evaluation and approval When this committee approves of it one will arrange for the ceremony for granting me a doctor degree in Philosophy So far so good It turned out however that it seems to be very difficult to find participants for such a committee because my work has a marked interdisciplinary character which means that for professional philosophers to judge the work and to read it with interest it is too scientific i e involving too much natural science while for professional natural scientists to judge that same work it is too philosophical All this has to do it seems with the existence of two disparate cultures within the academic world namely the humanities and philosophy on the one hand and the natural sciences and mathematics on the other And they seem not to like each other This is strange because whatever science one occupies oneself with humanities natural science or what not such a science relates to the very same one world But many philosophers will deny this and consider the humanities and philosophy as relating to a fundamentally different world than the natural sciences do So they will hold that my text which is intended to be a philosophical text is mixed up with items totally alien to what philosophy treats of Natural scientists on the other hand will remember the bad reputation of philosophy unfortunately partly justified so they are wary of their science being mixed up with philosophy unless they have created that particular philosophy all by themselves It is now a year ago that I had handed over my definitive text and have not heard anything since Probably pressure of work and lack of sufficient interest as just explained are the causes for this delay It is now the end of the year 2008 I have phoned the person who now is supposed to supervise and accompany the progress of my intended PHD but what I heard was some absense minded jabber with which nothing could be done This particular professor could not and did not reject my proposed PHD on qualitative grounds It was said to meet all the requirements of a dissertation PHD So although the University of Nijmegen is in Holland the very seat of Thomistic Philosophy which is the main subject and inspiration of my dissertation this apparently does not set aside laziness and indifference And because my intention to compose a PHD was not only to deliver a book but also to get engaged in interesting discussions about the philosophy of Substance and Being I will no longer lobby for having my work published as a dissertation After all now having the means of placing things on the internet making a PHD has now become largely unnecessary People can consult my work for free as often as they want to Meanwhile I continued publishing on the Internet about the same subject i e trying to provide an update of the Substance Accident Metaphysics based on recent insights But the website which has resulted so far does not have the form of a dissertation It is addressed to a broader audience and the Chapters are more ore less independent that s why I have called them Essays or documents It is also broader in scope including for example the theory of the hard and software of digital computers and discussions about the disciplin of Artificial Life Moreover it contains an extensive treatment of Crystallography and a System of Organic Stereometric Basic Forms Promorphology But also these extra expositions are geared to an ontological interpretation that is to say an interpretation of artificial organisms and their environment the computer and a deepening of an ontological interpretation of crystals and real organisms Perhaps the crown of my work appears in Fifth Part of Website composed in 2006 2009 There after having given a fine update of Aristotelian Logic in which Logic must be based on Being and not the other way around I made up a new ontological theory combining Aristotle s philosophy of Substance with Bohm s idea of the Implicate and Explicate Orders of Being This new theory was born by the need to place organic evolution in a broader metaphysical context in order to obtain more insight in its course and driving forces This was found to be necessary because in my opinion and not only mine the conventional neo darwinian theory of evolution based on random genetic mutation and natural selection fails to explain long term organic evolution Perhaps also my theory does not fully explain evolution but it contains definitely a lower number of pure ad hoc assumptions than neo darwinism have to make when explicitly explaining the course of evolution of one or another major group of organisms So in this Fifth Part of Website my Noëtic Theory of Evolution is developed It is developed in a step by step way while discussing concrete facts of evolution in this case that of the insect orders Diptera mosquitoes midges and flies and Hymenoptera wasps bees and ants We shall now start with the first Essay which will succinctly describe my main thesis An Essay on Being and Essence A one dimensional cellular automaton a pattern generating dynamical system Pattern formation in Nature Here already on the Homepage we start with a first Essay that will introduce the reader into my inquiry concerning pattern formation in nature and its metaphysical interpretation It is the first of a large series of Essays constituting this website that builds up a Theory of Beings beings displaying themselves as natural patterns REGULARITY ORDER LAW PATTERN Nature and that means the world of chemical substances crystals rocks atmospheric systems organisms including man etc is extremely copious with respect to all kinds of different components continually interacting with each other moving around transforming aggregating and segregating So one should naturally expect such a world to be utterly chaotic being devoid of such fine tuned organized things like human observers But here we are being a pattern ourselves and observing a host of other patterns around us We see crystals snow flakes salt cubes sand grains and all kinds of minerals weathersystems forming huge spirals and of course a myriad of organisms with their very diverse ways of patterned behavior and complex morphologies It seems that Nature possesses a strong tendency toward pattern formation in spite of the fact that the number of logically possible disordered configurations of components is overwhelmingly larger than the number of ordered ones How is this possible Do we live in a world of exceptions and coincidences When we look at the formation of crystals which means crystallization processes generating such marvellous ordered configurations like Diamonds or snow flakes then we see for example on the basis of experiments that these processes show a fairly high degree of repeatability Such a repeatability is likewise observable in the individual development of organisms from fertilized egg cells The large amount of young frogs that we encounter at the end of the summer are in fact repetitions of a certain kind of developmental process This possibility of repetition points to the existence of special LAWS under which the developments take place During the formation of crystals for example these are the diverse known or unknown crystallization laws They come into operation when certain conditions presence of certain chemicals temperature and pressure are satisfied In this way during the geological processes all kinds of crystals came into existence like Diamond and Salt but especially the many and complex silicate minerals that form a main component of the Earth s crust The same applies with respect to the individual development of every single organism Their development proceeds under a for each organism specific law Such a law is closely related to the structure of their DNA holding a comprehensive set of instructions for how to build and maintain the given organism and has been evolved during evolution An evolutionary process is in fact a process towards optimalization of the functioning of the organism in its environment by fine tuning such a law And this law starts to operate wherever certain conditions are satisfied resulting in the generation of the corresponding organism But these conditions are much more complex and diversified than those necessary for the formation of crystals Although crystals show some interesting analogies with organisms they exhibit individuality and growth and restore themselves when damaged during growth they differ significantly from organisms Their growth takes place by means of apposition of parts components onto the exterior boundary the surface of the crystal without altering its interior Organisms on the other hand mainly grow by means of intussusception i e insertion of parts inside the body This is possible because organisms are in a semi liquid state while crystals are solids Moreover in organisms all kinds of chemical processes keep going on while a crystal is a more or less static object within which only some vibration of the constituents takes place Further crystals are p e r i o d i c structures while organisms are not And finally crystals are thermodynamically equilibrium structures while organisms are not The latter are so called d i s s i p a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s Nevertheless both crystals and organisms are real entities intrinsic wholes generated according to some specific law IDENTITY Crystals appear on the scene of Reality just like organisms always as individuals Such an individual has a definite Identity that remains constant during its existence It is say A it is not B not C etc A developing crystal of Salt growing in a solution can change its shape while its Identity remains the same For organisms this applies even stronger We ourselves being an organism seem to have direct experience of our Identity staying the same during all of our life in spite of the fact of the many changes we constantly undergo Some insects undergo a strong metamorphosis for example from caterpillar to butterfly but nevertheless their Identity stays the same So it seems for every entity which is an intrinsic whole that there is something that remains the same and something else not remaining the same but always changing In Philosophy such changes are called accidental or per accidens in relation to the persistent Identity This Identity is called the intrinsic Essence of the thing so every real uniform being has such an Essence IDENTITY AS A PRINCIPLE But what then is this Essence Where does it abide Does it abide outside the thing as Plato assumed or inside the thing as his famous pupil Aristotle assumed And if the Essence is located inside the thing meaning that the Essence of every being abides in our world and not in some external immaterial world transcending the material world which I consider the most probable position where in the thing is it located and in what way Could this Essence be a concrete part of the thing the heart or soul of the thing which implies that the Essence itself would also be a thing and this thing should of course also have an Essence of its own Oh my god where are we going or is it in the thing in an abstract way whatever that means like a principle The last mentioned case seems to me the most probable This Principle could be understood as the internal better intrinsic because we do not mean spatially internal cause of the constitution of the thing in question WHAT IS A THING ANYWAY It is at this point worthwile to point out what I mean with the term thing or being A thing in this context is a stable pattern of constituents The constituents are organized and are with respect to their shape and behavior thus directed toward the whole the thing When the constituents are not thus organized they do not form a thing but an aggregate of many things Such an aggregate is not a and that means one thing but many things and so does not possess an Identity of its own the Identity is multiple and the shape and behavior of the constituents are not dependent on the whole So in this Essay a thing a being is always defined as a uniform whole like a crystal or an organism However the intrinsic unity of individual things occurs in different degrees in different beings We can observe this phenomenon of gradation by looking to all kinds of natural objects where for example some organisms show a colony like appearance and others show much more unity THE PRINCIPLE OR ESSENCE AS A SPECIFIC DYNAMICAL LAW The above mentioned principle the Identity or Essence of the thing is that item in the thing by which that thing is what it is and which confers unity upon the thing To denominate the Essence as a principle sounds fine but remains vague How does this principle which we now admit is abstract look like In what way should we imagine such a principle At this point it is appropriate to return to the initial exposition about the observed regularity i e according to law concerning the generation of uniform beings Every patterned whole like a crystal or an organism is the product of a regular process It is the product a stadium or a sequence of stadia of a pattern generating dynamical system And with this we have finally found the sought after status of the Identity or Essence of a thing The Essence of a uniform thing is the dynamical law of the dynamical system that generated that very thing This sounds no longer vague and seems to me a good characterization of the Essence of a thing For a more extensive treatment of dynamical systems see the Essay on Dynamical Systems and the Metaphysics of Substance and Accident In this First Part of Website this thesis will be extensively investigated as to its plausibility It will be found out that the Essence is the genotypical whatness of the given object genuine being while the latter s intrinsic properties are phenotypical expressions of this Essence brought about when the object is generated i e when the dynamical law becomes its Essence THE IMMANENT CHARACTER OF THE ESSENCE AS DYNAMICAL LAW Physical matter so it turned out shows a strong inclination or at least capacity toward self organization and where this self organization actually happens we have a pattern generating dynamical system in operation The law rule associated with this system does not abide outside the system but in some way within it Philosophers call this immanent meaning remaining inside in contradistinction to transcendent The law is immanent in the elements the reactive constituents of the dynamical system A part of the properties of those elements embodies the relevant dynamical law governing the behavior of the system This law is as it were spread out over the system s elements and therefore it is abstract and implicit THE TRANSCENDENT CHARACTER OF THE DYNAMICAL LAW IN COMPUTER SIMULATIONS However in computer simulations of such pattern generating dynamical systems for example Cellular Automata these laws are in a way compelled by necessity transcendent They abide in a sense outside the elements of the system because those elements in computer simulations do not have properties of themselves We the programmer adjudge those properties to them by letting them interact according to some explicitly specified law rule Only then are they elements of a dynamical system In other words only after explicit implementation of a dynamical law in a computer simulation program will the for example screen pixels become elements of a simulated dynamical system When we let the system run from one or another start configuration of those elements then it could happen that the system self organizes those elements towards definite patterns even from random start configurations THE NECESSITY OF USING MODELS IN THE SEARCH FOR ESSENCE Real things like crystals but especially organisms are such complicated beings and in the case of organisms products of a very long evolutionary history and moreover so little known in detail that we are unable to explicitly formulate the dynamical law under which their generation maintenance and behavior are governed and thus we cannot explicitly formulate their Essence or Identity The DNA is known for only a few organisms and knowing the DNA structure which means having deciphered its instruction code is probably not sufficient for knowing the exact dynamical law Even crystals are not yet sufficiently well understood in this respect If we want in spite of that to do some research say investigate the relationship of the Essence of a thing which we now admit to be the relevant dynamical law with the state the condition in which a thing a uniform patterned being can be at successive time steps and together with that investigate the way of being of the Essence and of those states then we will along with observations in the real world have to make use of computer simulations because there the systems can be precisely defined It is hoped that those simulations call them models will besides other things yield a set of revised philosophical basic concepts for dealing with the problem of the location and status of Essence THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN PHILOSOPHY AND NATURAL SCIENCE AND THE HISTORY OF THE THEORY OF BEING AND ESSENCE In Philosophy it is however not particular relevant to know what the Essence of a Salt crystal is that means the knowledge of the very law governing the crystallization of Salt crystals Of course that could be instructive and maybe even interesting for a philosopher but it remains a task for Natural Science not for Philosophy For the philosopher especially the philosopher of Nature it is only important to understand what Essence is in so far as it is Essence the Essence of whatever uniform thing or in other words what it means to be the Essence of a thing The consideration is thus in a way more general than the one in Natural science Such a study of Essence as Essence has been carried out for the first time by Plato and by Aristotle about 350 years before Christ and continued in the Middle Ages by philosophers like St Thomas Aquinas After this the interest went other ways This diversion is related to the emergence of modern science especially the new mathematical and observational methods that was quite a discovery After the Middle Ages Philosophy underwent a strong influence from the rapidly evolving natural sciences but also other matters showed up like the Theory of Knowledge epistemology and the man oriented philosophies The oldfashioned Metaphysics of Being including the search for Essence in the above defined philosophical way remained it is true in some circles but did not develop further in a significant way REVIVAL AND REVISION OF THE METAPHYSICS OF BEING AND ESSENCE Such a further development of a theory of Being and Essence A classical text from St Thomas Aquinas is in an English translation available on the Internet See the external links below on the basis of relevant recent data especially the insights obtained from the study of real and abstract dynamical systems I am presently undertaking as will be clear from what has been said above The present Essay is of course just a short summary of and an introduction to all the work I ve done and still doing work that has also been put on paper in order to compose my PHD My more or less complete exposition can be found on the rest of the pages of this website You can access them via the links on the left screen or via the links above on the main screen There you can also find a total overview Complete Table of Contents of the whole site thus far completed As could be expected those links will introduce you further into the relevant philosophical issues and especially they will introduce you into the theory of dynamical systems A number of examples of such systems are given and evaluated for the purpose of setting up a revised metaphysics of Being and Essence They will moreover lead you to the study of crystals and organisms in order to be able to interpret them as products of dynamical systems governed by a dynamical law which is then interpreted as the Essence of such beings A second series of Essays lets you get acquainted with the classical ideas about Being and Essence especially those of St Thomas Aquinas 13th century who himself was inspired and strongly influenced by Aristotle 4th century before Christ There we will read some classical texts in English translation and try to interpret them and comment on them I have found out that such a revised Metaphysics of Being and Essence is growing towards an interesting body of knowledge and insight and that it could stimulate further interdisciplinary research especially in Philosophy itself but also in Biology Crystallography Mineralogy computer simulations of pattern generating dynamical systems including Artificial Intelligence AI and

    Original URL path: http://www.metafysica.nl/index_a.html (2016-02-01)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Philosophy

    (No additional info available in detailed archive for this subpage)
    Original URL path: /turing/ (2016-02-01)


  • Philosophy

    (No additional info available in detailed archive for this subpage)
    Original URL path: /holism/ (2016-02-01)


  • Philosophy

    (No additional info available in detailed archive for this subpage)
    Original URL path: /ontology/ (2016-02-01)


  • Philosophy

    (No additional info available in detailed archive for this subpage)
    Original URL path: /nature/ (2016-02-01)


  • Philosophy

    (No additional info available in detailed archive for this subpage)
    Original URL path: /wings/ (2016-02-01)




  •