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  • boolean_note4
    a comparision The number of subatomic particles in the Universe is estimated to be 10 80 Another comparision Since the origin of the Universe about 10 17 seconds have elapsed

    Original URL path: http://www.metafysica.nl/boolean_note4.html (2016-02-01)
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  • boolean_note5
    Note 5 These restrictions are by the way also easily realizable in reality and this means chemically realizable back to main text

    Original URL path: http://www.metafysica.nl/boolean_note5.html (2016-02-01)
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  • wings XVg
    special regularity as to its fundamentals be a chemical and physical one NOTE 180 Organisms are if one deems it important to say physical chemical constructs whose complete functional mechanism cannot however be derived from what we know of classical chemistry and physics but which constructs rather extend these disciplines by including precisely this functional mechanism and in this way rendering these disciplines comprehensive and complete by which it is not stated in what degree the specific organismic can be undestood The living condition only over forms the mechanical and chemical condition if one does not mean by mechanical and chemical condition precisely that mechanical and chemical condition lying at its i e Life s foundation but rather that condition as it lies at the foundation of the in organic Again the living condition does not rise above its own mechanical and chemical condition but it rises above the mechanical and chemical condition as that condition lies at the foundation of inorganic things And not rising above its own mechanical and chemical condition it may be more or less identified with it if we consider its self one function Life does not stand above the chemical but stands in its chemical NOTE 181 Within the living do act the classical normal chemical laws and specific laws which also are chemical but which only apply to those chemical entities that are living The in its form most strange element of the living is the growth and reproduction of living matter NOTE 182 In order to leave the problem in its for the time being not understood state it will be wise to not all to quickly and without critique grab the help offered by nucleic acids DNA RNA If one has avoided this then the synthesis of the conceptually worked out results with the effects of the nucleic acids will be the more successful So for the sake of clarity we therefore for the time being skip the nucleic acid component In almost every attempt to analytically reveal the essential one has taken Life to be the effect of a special order and we speak of the order and arrangement of the atoms into specific large molecular constructs Here however we must give a small but important specification The order is always the immediate result and effect of the properties of the constituents and thus of the atoms The molecular properties are it is true real existentially bound up to the presence of the relevant molecules but are essentially potentially the direct effects of atomic properties which properties have now according to aristotelian thomistic metaphysics become properties of the very molecule itself as we saw in the previous two documents The atoms as constituent particles have as such now become virtual This i e the atomic properties now having become properties of the molecule is truly responsible for the molecule to be intrinsically one to be a holistic whole and will in the case of the living organismic molecule account for the cooperative nature of all the processes in a living being where this molecule instructs its immediately surrounding aqueous serum like support medium which is everywhere in contact through a denatured membrane with that living molecule Whether a determined self one function can exist does not depend on whether the proper molecule is actually there but whether the molecule can construct itself in virtue of the atomic potencies NOTE 183 If we now follow the usual lines of enquiry and wholly formally take Life as a specific ordering of matter which essentially is correct then this order must show itself clearly recognizably in precisely those entities for instance the living cell that we are meant to investigate in this respect NOTE 184 The sought for fundamental specific order is just like in all other material orders based probably already in the atomic domain and concerns states that we can only formally take to be genuine orders which however hardly have illustrative examples But this order will in one form or another continue to be inherent also in the molecular domain and in the holistic organismic domain in which we should definitely not conclude that such an order is present there in a more obscure way Indeed the very clear and illustrative and thus not obscure orders of the Crystal Systems are based on the constituent order properties that are themselves rather obscure to us and only mathematically approximately describable So we can just like that investigate the chemical structure of organisms and even their morphology NOTE 185 as to that chemical structure s and morphology s elements of order and try to draw conclusions from it NOTE 186 If we do not want to entertain naive pseudo comparisons cells elementary crystallites etc then we nowhere in the living condition see an analogue with the crystalline order of the inorganic Indeed the deeper and critically stricter we see things the more such comparisons with the crystalline order evaporate And here with such a unique consequence and exclusiveness that we are directly forced to be convinced to necessarily presuppose an anti crystalline principle of order The sub molecular framework letting appear the crystalline order apparently does not match up with that sub molecular framework lying at the base of living matter and is thus in one way or another contrary to or quite different from the latter NOTE 187 Certainly the most important fact is that in the growth and doubling of living matter the true principle is induced and transferred namely the special order of Life which essentially is a specific configurative arrangement In order to transfer it the doubling of living matter certainly transcends a kind of parallel direction It is a very deep essential intervention in the system and we must already assume here that the inorganic building blocks of not yet living substance are not from quasi far off directed out in the way dipoles or molecular magnets are so directed but that there must have been a phase albeit very short of intimate contact And because we cannot take this phase other than chemical bonding the not yet living component substrate lying against the living matrix must have been engaged in a true overall bond Of course not at whatever locations few of them already suffice because configurational particulars can propagate or expand within the proper structures and into the proper directions Because a breaking of bond must precede the mechanical separation by which we in the end recognize the complete self doubling it here concerns a temporary chemical bonding which can be broken after complete transformation is done Probably the preparing introductory phase still far from living is a pseudo crystalline phase in which dipolar forces v d Waals forces and others may play a role The nucleus of a given atom or a nucleus of a given polynuclear atom a molecule which is positively charged may feel the negative electron cloud of an another atom resulting in a weak electrostatic force of attraction between them This is the v d Waals force The end of this phase is however certainly a coupling by quantum mechanical resonances And this leads to the very important phase of the configurative substituent vitalization and finally there is a concluding phase the physical separation The new electron microscopic research has strongly emphasized the concept of structures and one has connected it with the very beloved concept of the dynamic To the dynamic equilibrium having sway over physiology NOTE 188 are thus now added the dynamic structures controlling the fine morphology and microhistology This often proposed concept of dynamic structures we do not like to accept in their usual sense although one cannot take mesomerous superstructures also over forming structures or superposition structures with energetic tensions on the one hand and elastic buffering on the other to be clear cut static so there do exist dynamic structures But basically they are regular chemical relationships and there such terms as dynamic are not current or one applies it to everything NOTE 189 Of course we too emphasize the non correspondence of the fundamental essential life molecular structures as they exist in the living molecule with those non living structures which are optically directly or after preparation for instance with coagulating agents accessible to us Some such relationships do exist also here i e some sort of dynamic relationships do also exist in the living protoplasm NOTE 190 but they should in the context of our investigations only be of subordinate significance What prevents us from taking dynamic structures to be an especially important aspect is the simple conviction for us to possess in the form of Unimol a better and more comprehensive superordinate concept Life seems to us to be a force standing over and above substance in the sense of matter and acting from within NOTE 191 bound up it is true to its matter but itself immaterial and substance less For after regrouping having the loss of life as a consequence without making a difference in the conceptual make up as known to us of atomic constituents constant number constant mass NOTE 192 thus Life having the material value 0 life has vanished without a trace and therefore being immaterial by definition invisible imponderable But this without a trace doesn t fit There truly are great traces indeed purely materially accompanying the transition from living to dead they only duck out of observation as a result of a macrophysical erasion The decisive step takes place in the interior of atoms which within the association with their fellow atoms have ambivalent and plurivalent existential forms which are specifically determined by precisely that association Here we see at least a similarity with HOENEN s view of atoms in molecules as discussed in the previous two documents One may also say The total association enhances stabilization of the special state now at hand and with this also the dangerous because tempting abuse in applying it statement is at its right place The constituents are determined by the whole where the whole self one function With this fact one cannot bungle one just has to fully liberate such concepts from all historic and systematic ballast NOTE 193 If one like many authors judges the chemical difference between living and dead to be low but the structural difference to be high then one makes the characteristic mistake to discriminate between chemical composition and chemical structure It in fact is the case and doubts about this will eventually disappear that the functional organismic structure is at the same time the true chemical bonding structure at least basically while we as to the actual living of the advanced differentiated organisms may focus on the functionally histological amplification Unfortunately the picture of chemistry comprises essentially the types of the cold blank metalls the glistering world of dead crystals the caustic aggressive explosive poisoness and also healing chemicals The organisms which one only hesitatingly removes from zoology and botany are not only determined by the mentioned concepts but between them and chemistry is inserted a long chain of isolating disciplines characterized by the order of names Anatomy Histology Physiology Physiological Chemistry Biochemistry All these disciplines in all their undoubted usefulness isolate parts of the organism and as a result of this isolation these parts are dead The latter biochemistry very clearly is true chemistry but its substrate is and this is said without reproach no more than a mere nebulous shadow of true Life NOTE 194 Today we safely may radically connect between chemistry of the inorganic and zoology and to view the objects of zoology and botany as the chemistry of existentially functionally macroscopically formed compounds with self controlled preservation The Correspondence Principle A general feature of quantum mechanics is this At the scale of atoms and molecules it predicts some unfamiliar effects but as the scale increases towards the everyday these effects become smaller and smaller until they are essentially negligible The assertion that quantum effects should vanish in this way for large systems is known as the Correspondence Principle We now continue and conclude Müller s section on Life and Matter with his exposition of the question whether a like correspondence principle does exist between the non living and the living It is about the addition of properties when going up along the scale of size sub microscopic macroscopic and or amplification of them A last question is about the possibility of an at least conceptual connection of the phenomena of Life with the phenomena of non life in line with the Bohrian Correspondence Principle between micro and macrophysics Is there in analogy to that also a kind of law of transition in the relation nonliving living suggested by the fact of the transition of non living substance into living If the analogy were indeed there then a regular relationship should be there letting us see one finding in one case to be a special case of a finding in another case Such a relationship has not even been found in the subatomic domain or may be established only under special views rendering the question of the correspondence between inorganic entities and observable organismic life entirely futile so that in this way an explanation is not possible As to what is known we can say that a simple analogue of the Bohrian Correspondence Principle does not exist Every transition from non living into living is the repetition upon stimilation of a specific once statistically spontaneous act Perhaps one also may characterize Life being a direct unimolecular connection of micro and macrophysics by precisely the absence of the Correspondence Principle although the internal practice of Life has found ways to preserve or establish its applicability in certain domains So essentially the Correspondence Principle does not hold for the living namely if it were holding unequivocally analogously then one would find oneself already in the non living again NOTE 195 Instead of the Correspondence Principle C P we here have the unidirected qualitative determined amplification the C P is practically formally also a principle of amplification which in the form of a specific summation practically is the most important feature of the phenomenon of Life It is succinctly stated about the fact that the physical additivity relates to unimportant elements such as inertial mass and others And that from interesting elements precisely the elementary magnetism still adds itself up but that electrical charges residue valences etc do not accumulate do not bestow upon any larger piece of matter a special feature The result in this case is always a neutralization taking place already in the smallest domains In the living condition there clearly is a specific additivity If one in a very rough estimate divides the amount of mass of objects with the most primitive organismic behavior by the number of the participating atomic constituents and takes into account here how small in fact is the effective and materially energetic equivalent of the living condition in these objects then the individual atomic constituents do participate so little that one definitely can say that there would be no means to demonstrate Life if there did not exist instead of a neutralization the additivity by which the phenomenon of Life would be recognizable at all From this point of view and ignoring several serious objections with which we shall deal in the section elementary vivification one might add to the elementary charge and to the elementary magnetism a kind of elementary vivification in a very small unit only summable i e only possible to add such units up under very special conditions only realized in living protoplasm namely living substance and as a result of which this substance has become living substance So in this way one may not it is true speak of a general correspondence principle but still always of an extremely special unrepeatable one off correspondence principle The value of such a consideration lies less in the direction of physicalizing Life than in the possibility to add a new image to the many elucidating ones There are two types of transitions connecting the domains of microphysics and macrophysics 1 BOHR s Correspondence principle concerning one substrate that is enlarged discontinuously namely by summation of free individually different but commonly statistically working in a similar way separated molecular individuals making up macroscopic things and 2 JORDAN s and by us seen and expounded a little differently amplifying principle also concerning one substrate but increasing essentially continuously namely as a result of intramolecular continuous construction The difference between these two transitions is insofar not very sharp as in the inorganic domain the amplifying principle largely is absent So there the Correspondence Principle is more or less similar to the amplifing principle whereas for the organismic domain as a result of its systemic embedding of the organismic molecule in inorganic i e non living auxiliary components BOHR s Correspondence Principle still has some validity in certain subdomains and there being more or less of an amplyfying nature The ultimate objective of biological research the explanation of Life may at last be reached in a satisfying way when we exclude ourselves i e when we exclude from the problem setting the question what we ourselves are The fact that for this question there only are symbolic and no scientific solutions is the common result of all philosophers of all nations The Chemical Bond Introductory remark from the author of this website The Unimol view of organisms as here on this website presented and inspired by Oskar Müller holds that the individual organism is not a system of separate individual large and small free molecules and ions interacting in several ways but is one single truly giant molecule of some protein like substance But as already said earlier this needs an important specification The intrinsic unity of the organism is grounded on the one living molecule i e because it is or better insofar as it is a single molecule This molecule is the true self of the organism But unlike inorganic in the sense of non living molecules this molecule cannot already passively exist i e is not able to exist already as a result of just to be such that it complies with energetic conditions thermodynamically stabilizing it but must actively maintain itself must actively participate in its existence For this to be possible the molecule must have a strategy to do so and moreover it must itself be part of that strategy too Such a strategy to materially exist consists in the fact that the living molecule is itself embedded in an aqueous serum like support medium which is everywhere in physical contact with that molecule which itself is a tangled weblike structure of chemically bonded atoms And the living molecule as being the very self of the organism directs this medium to do what is necessary in order to sustain it The medium in turn mediates the traffic between the true outer environment and the living molecule We may assume that the living molecule because it is so big and consists of so many quasi particles can be thermodynamically characterized And when we do so we say that the molecule is in a state far from thermodynamic equilibrium it is a so called dissipative structure And in order to maintain its structure it must remain in that state because returning to an equilibrium state will in this case mean a disintegration of the molecule So while dissipating energy i e entropy heat not transformable into work it must in order not to fall back to its energy minimum its thermodynamic equilibrium take up energy This can be done by taking up matter containing energy and then the molecule is actually feeding All this is accomplished through the aqueous serum like support medium mediating between the living molecule and the true outer environment from which food must be taken And of course this medium must be maintained too How does it do it Also actively by itself No in contrast to the living molecule itself the support medium is as a whole in thermodynamic equilibrium and may then passively exist without more ado Knowing all this we may say that in fact the organism consisting of living molecule plus medium is as such not a true Substance in the metaphysical sense because the medium contains uncountably many individual molecules themselves Substances Only insofar as the organism is the living molecule it is a true Substance And indeed we can be sure that in higher organisms having a pronounced self the nervous system belongs to the living molecule and there the self is indeed seated in the nervous system So if we consider the organism proper we must focus on the living molecule and in the form of this one molecule the organism is a true Substance but having brought with it its own immediate existential conditions And because our emphasis is on this molecule the bonds holding it together are extremely important And these bonds are by definition chemical bonds So before continuing our exposition of Unimol we must first study the chemical bond Largely we have done this already in First Part of Website namely in the 18th document called The Chemical Bond If the reader wants to directly access that document he or she may click HERE end of introductory remark The role of the chemical bond in Unimol In the mentioned document in First Part of Website we found that there are four types of chemical bond The covalent or homopolar bond The ionic or heteropolar bond The dative bond The hydrogen bond All bonds sometimes hybridizing one with another play a role in Unimol i e play a role in the chemical constitution of the living molecule and of course also play an important role in the aqueous serum like support medium totally enveloping the living molecule By far the most important chemical bond in the living molecule is the covalent bond while the ionic and dative bonds play only a minor role But the hydrogen bond is very important too It may fix and stabilize the shape of large free molecules in the medium and of large molecular units of and in the one living molecule We will now follow some expositions by Oskar Müller 1959 on the chemical bond as they play a role in Unimol The external picture of the chemical bond consists in a materially specific qua valence and qua chemical affinity and regular stoechiometric aggregation of smaller units into larger qualitatively new units whose as a rule large stability is expressed as a release of energy quantitatively characteristic of the particular process of aggregation The internal picture of the chemical bond roughly a kind of electronic re grouping or a low energy coupling state of a multiple component system NOTE 895 is the subject of subtle theoretical work about which there are competent expositions in the relevant professional literature Characteristically the two most important physical fundamental particles proton and electron play an important role also in chemical changes and bonds Probably one is not in great error when one lets play in the organismic protein like one molecule connected to its aqueous medium hydratically the proton a bond mediating role comparable with the electron and cooperating with it while one thinks all kinds of organismic functions to be realized by and to be based on protons on the one hand and electrons on the other Because we reckon the organismic molecules to be the most true type molecules the emphasis when speaking about contrasting bonding types should perhaps not lay so much on the hom e opolar heteropolar contrast but more on the organismic proton electronic and saltlike heteropolar one thus if I am right taking covalent and hydrogen bond together as opposing the ionic bond It is clear that no bonding shows or can show such an additional and rich gradation of realized intensity as does the hydrogen bridge bond A hydrogen bridge bond hydrogen bond may be formed between two molecules and then of course between the two respective atoms of these molecules the hydrogen atom of the one molecule and another atom of the other molecule or one may say a hydrogen bridge between the atom X of the one molecule and the atom Y of the other mediated by a hydrogen atom H covalently bonded with the atom X and electrostatically bonded with the atom Y when there is uneven distribution of charge Part of the electrically positive character of the hydrogen atom covalently bonded to atom X of the one molecule or molecular part shows through the electron cloud formed by that hydrogen s single electron There where a hydrogen bridge hydrogen bond between an atom X and Y can be established at all the molecule to which atom Y belongs is overall negatively charged at its Y end because the atom Y has gained one or more electrons from other atoms to which it is covalently bonded And then there is an electrostatic attraction between this negative charge and the hydrogen atom s positive nuclear charge showing through its electron cloud And so the molecules are attracted to each other by these opposite electrical charges and the H atom now forms a bridge between the two molecules more precisely a bridge between atom X of the one molecule and atom Y of the other molecule This is the hydrogen bond We may symbolize it with X H Y generally as X H Y or X H Y depending to which atom the hydrogen is covalently bonded And of course such a hydrogen bond may also form between parts of the same large molecule and so being responsible for that molecule s shape NOTE 896 which bonding can extend from an effect just evident from influencing physiological properties all the way to a fixed molecular connection From its most commonly present weak form in spectroscopic interpretations one still has to distinguish between average value and unit value one should not conclude that the hydrogen bond is essentially and always a weak bond NOTE 897 Because in cases of strong resonance the bridge proton the nucleus of the H atom submerges into the electron cloud of the partner with the same expressive value one may in this case also say the neighboring electron cloud partly puts over the first without leaving its own cloud orbital totally it results in quite a firm and fixed by the bridge proton overlap of the electron clouds and with it to a firm bonding The partial submergence of the proton into another electron cloud is eased by the fact that the proper cloud of the combination X H is distorted enriched into the direction of X and the other electron cloud i e the electron cloud of the other partner at least theoretically does now possess a substantial extent asymptotical density decrease that based on quantization practically lets originate something like a sharp radius If the neighboringness is correspondingly close and the preconditions of the X H bond a certain degree of polarizablity and of the Y component electronic configuration one electron pair are satisfied then there are no fundamental obstacles to the X H Y bond functionally to transform almost into X H Y This is facultatively possibly realized or realizable but every attempt to prove it should be connected with an interaction letting the system react according to its origin namely react as X H Y But that the bridge H in fact remains at its paternal atom is concluded a bit unrightfully from the subsequent separation result Only the supply of energy gives the bridge H the possibility to decide upon to which it belongs That is the initial state as well as the finished bond breaking delude us to know in certain cases one may parhaps measure it spectroscopically to precisely what atom the former i e potential or presumptive bridge H actually belongs In the stage of being a full intact stable true H bridge one can hardly maintain this Considering the spatial fundamental domain of the hydrogen bond H bond then upon separation being at the same time the transition of the conditionally quasi multible valence of H into the one valence form there can only result the original single partners From this one cannot conclude things about the status of distribution in the effective and strong H bond especially because the living substance may not be accessible to spectroscopic analysis NOTE 898 That we as to the fundamental organismic give absolute priority only to this true chemical covalent atomic bonding NOTE 899 which exclusively results in true molecular individuals and not in mere aggregations heaps is evident The covalent type of chemical bond is precisely the one in which the molecules resulting from it retain in all circumstances thus also when taken up into a crystal lattice their full individuality losing it only when the whole molecule is as such irreversibly destroyed So the true individuals possess in the form of the chemical covalent bond among its constituents the strongest stabilizing forces being present in this domain at all To complete this image one may say that also the constituents of the Heitler London bond i e the covalent bond are being saturated individually amongst each other whereas in the case of electrovalence the ionic bond it is about a non individual statistic neutralizing as a result of aggregation within the action range So in the case of the ionic bond an individual of a given species of constituent in a given individual molecule is not necessarily in precisely the same state as any other in different molecular individuals of the compound We obtain a particularly illustrative picture if we imagine that the Heitler London forces of covalence first of all correspond to those bonding forces that are active in the atomic partners themselves so that thus the covalent molecule with its homogeneous bonding is the real continuation of the atomic material constructional combination The overall line of evolution can thus also be marked in terms of bonding One may even say that the structural development of the Periodic Table of chemical elements is ideal and unequivocal only in the K and L shells present in the organogeneous elements and that from the M shell onwards certain disharmonies set in for instance expressed in the alternating subsequent filling up of shells which fact perhaps also reflects the fact that beyond the first 10 elements S ulphur and P hosphorus in organisms only auxiliarily taken no Life can appear anymore The expression harmoniously constructed elements is initially legitimate only when referring to Life for seen from an overall thermodynamic viewpoint things may be quite different see the position of Fe iron among the elements The fact that alongside the most important covalent homogeneous bonding also the other bonding types except the so called metallic but including the various types of intermolecular forces are still functionally important matches with our conviction and that there do exist mixing and transitional types for which inorganic examples are absent but for which examples specifically and significantly exist in the organismic we certainly may suppose Precisely in the organogeneous elements there may exist variations also within the so called homopolar bond covalent bond which is precisely geared to it NOTE 900 with new effects which do not however represent an essential feature of Life but certainly brings it into actuality and existence Especially with respect to the organismic we must note that the bonding as it is in itselfnbsp certainly is an absolutely necessary constructive element in realization but further it is only the conceptual expression of the consequence of atomic properties One should not put it all into the concept of bonding the qualitative essence has no seat therein But one may and should use and emphasize it demonstratively and symbolically Apart from the in themselves more or less similar C C bonds carbon carbon bonds there is in organismic substances alongside true ionogenic partnerships a rich variety of the most different polarized atomic bonds even involving many of the simple C C bonds because as a result of their asymmetric substitution they also experience weak electronic deformations In organismic molecules there exists at a physically chemically prexisting maximum of diversity an obtained maximum of preserving and fixing stability of these molecules this maximum begun to be selected already from the smallest initial molecules So in organismic molecules there is over and above the physically chemically determined maximum of diversity yet another maximum this time an obtained maximum of stability From the large amount of particular cases to be noted in the organogeneous elements and their combinations we can select only a few in which we even don t know whether precisely they are the most important One will in contrast to the inorganic models here in the sense of examples being so simple and typical to us take precisely the organismic molecular formation as the most perfect case of a constituting compound revealing new qualities We too easy become confused by the chemical ruin of the corpse or by matter of Life killed in experiment while in thought we still always add the overawing functional from without it is the musical instrument view of organisms still in need of an artist in order to sound In the genuine chemical bond a fundamental issue of chemistry qualitative features are expressed as a result of coexistence The chemical bond is a qualitative effect NOTE 901 which cannot comprehensively be understood from any combination of laws alone Here we have to do with a primordial phenomenon which we ourselves do not know and cannot describe NOTE 902 but whose characteristic effects are well known and which as a substitute characterize the basic phenomenon Begin and end of the chemical reaction have a different energy content which difference becomes such that it can be released and thus necessarily will be released resulting in the new state conditionally becoming irreversible The appearing bonding forces are then the negative counterparts of the amount of released energy and the external quantum mechanical forces of attraction and thus not the coupling exchange energy are in reality quanta in absence equivalents Fehlquantenäquivalente In the reaction product a certain number of energy quanta has become absent while it was present in the free partners One may assume that the organismic way of considering things also provides significant hints as to mediate and transitional states which are reaction kinetically so interesting and transcending by far the paper chemical consideration mediate and transitional states in the chemical reaction in which the classical valences and structures being themselves mere idealized limiting cases hardly play a role as it seems and by reason of which they i e the mediate and transitional states chemically so strongly resist treatment Precisely formulated i e allowing to be well formulated well definable molecular individuals with well known ground states dive at the moment of the reaction into a phase in which no rules known to us need to be applicable in which no states of affairs and properties well defined to us are present perhaps except the pure mass and thus the bruto summation formula i e the so called empirical formula of the chemical compound only expressing the numbers and sorts of atoms present in a molecule of it and from which phase they the precisely formulated molecular individuals after often a very short interim again appear as again well definable new molecules having known ground states and being accompanied by an energy disposal packet being a transformed obscure residue of precisely that what had in fact taken place A precisely fabulously exact empirical knowledge about the initial and end states of the chemical reaction and about energy quanta makes us believe to possess an exact closed causal knowledge in which the undoubtedly strictly regular events taking place in the dark detail free

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  • note1
    level of the system The phenotypical domain is the individual concrete observable appearance of the system The system s Dynamical Law and Essence of the generated Totality itself i e now seen as one complete but abstract entity properly belongs to the genotypical domain it is expressed first of all as the interaction of the elements and finally as the generated Totality in the phenotypical domain I borrow these terms

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  • note2
    see the atoms integrate into a molecule in which the atoms undergo it is true change but without their Identity being changed in the process The atomic number nuclear charge

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  • note3
    the Universe in which there did not yet exist molecules because the temperatures were to high Only atoms existed So every encountered molecule can be viewed as formed from free atoms There even has been a period in which also

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  • electronconfiguration
    Shell Second Shell H 1 He 2 Li 2 1 Be 2 2 B 2 3 C 2 4 N 2 5 O 2 6 F 2 7 Ne 2

    Original URL path: http://www.metafysica.nl/electrons.html (2016-02-01)
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  • note4
    mathematically impossible The array of hexagons may be extended as far as you please and over a surface either plane or curved but it never closes in D ARCY THOMPSON 1942 abridged edition 1975 So although hexagons in to cite

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