archive-nl.com » NL » M » METAFYSICA.NL

Total: 972

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • Spiraxonia isogonia
    its siphuncle lives in the last shell chamber only As far as can be inferred this soft body has a basic form not of a spiral but of one belonging to the Dipleura Stauraxonia Its siphuncle however which is a single calcified strand of living tissue extending from the body to the center of the shell s spiral and carrying a rich blood supply is spirally curved following the shell s spiral So in a sense the soft body as a whole is spirally formed after all For a section through the siphuncle see next Figure Figure 5 Anatomy of Nautilus siphuncle Transverse section of siphonal tube The siphuncle is used to regulate the buoyancy of the animal After CLARKSON E 1979 Invertebrate palaentology and evolution Figure 6 Left image Shell structure in Spirula with siphuncle Right image Spirula in life position showing the location of the shell After CLARKSON E 1979 Invertebrate palaentology and evolution In Figure 6 we see that in Spirula the shell is an interior structure So especially in such cases the shell clearly is just an o r g a n morphologically as well as physiologically This organ second order form individual has the basic form of the Isogonia planata Spiraxonia while the soft animal itself apparently belongs to the Dipleura Stauraxonia Second Genus of the Spiraxonia isogonia Isogonia aplanata Stereometric Basic Form Aplanar equiangular spiral Forms with a spirally coiled main axis according to the equiangular spiral with its whorls drawn into a third dimension Figure 7 Common land snail To the I s o g o n i a a p l a n a t a we assign all organismic form individuals that are built according to an a p l a n a r e q u i a n g u l a r s p i r a l In these forms the solution to the above mentioned problem that appears when the value of WORM is smaller the the reciprocal of the value of WHORL causing the actual more or less tubular whorls to get in each other s way is solved by giving way to the third dimension of subsequent whorls resulting in a turbinate structure of a more or less conical overall shape Most marine and land snails display such turbinate forms Their overall shape is indeed more or less conical We can imagine the tube being coiled up along a cone In this they show several degrees that can be quantified with the parameter TOP TOP indicates the speed with which the consecutive whorls of the spiral are displaced along the length of the cone We can measure TOP by determining the angle BETA between the common tangent to the whorls of the shell and the axis of the spiral Nautilus has a TOP value of 90 0 because all the whorls lie in one and the same plane But Turritella having a sharply pointed shell has a much smaller value Figure 8 Turritella duplicata

    Original URL path: http://www.metafysica.nl/turing/spiraxonia_3.html (2016-02-01)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Promorphology II
    Only the those cells that as free and isolated life units form the substrate of actual bionts generally display a larger wealth of higjer basic forms while the great majority of the remaining cells which constitute organs and higher order form individuals anyway most offen stick to lower promorphs If one could compare and statistically order all existing cells with respect to their promorph then the result would probably be that the majority of all cells possesses either the completely amorphous basic form of the Anaxonia Anaxonia acentra or the absolutely regular shape of the sphere that is the basic form of the Homaxonia and the one that imediately connects with the latter the Monaxonia Further it probably would turn out that the spherical form is predominant in those cells that can develop their form shape unimpeded by external non uniform pressure freely out into all directions of space for instance those that exist freely in a liquid while on the other hand the monaxonic form and the anaxonic form predominates in those cells that must in their overall growth conform with the external constraints imposed on them by the spatial situation of the adjacent cells As has been said the spherical shape of cells is to be expected in cases where they live freely except when such a cell is enclosed in a shell like in many radiolarians foraminiferans and solitary diatomeans See Figure 1 Figure 1 Stictodiscus a diatomean cell Photograph after HUSTEDT F 1956 Kieselalgen Diatomeen The spherical shape we see in many virtual bionts physiological individuals that can develop into the corresponding mature forms that play a role in the reproduction of organisms namely many eggs and spores Among partial bionts physiological individuals that can maintain themselves for some time but which cannot independently develop into the mature form of the species we can indicate many pollen grains having this spherical shape As the most regular basic forms which immediately connect to the form of the sphere we have indicated in the previous documents the Polyaxonia the irregular and regular endospheric polyhedra Also these are often materialized in cells especially again in the above mentioned virtual and partial bionts the eggs and spores and the pollen grains From the large form group of the Protaxonia it is especially the Monaxonia that form the promorphs of many cells and as such the homopolar Monaxonia haplopola as well as the heteropolar Monaxonia diplopola forms Examples among cells of the Diplopola anepipeda are the eggs of birds More seldom than the Monaxonic form which can be derived from the Homaxonia by slight modifications we will find the Stauraxonic form Stauraxonia be materialized in cells We see them for example in diatoms and pollengrains We will show below the diversity of cell forms even within a single group The Diatoms These latter are vegetable unicellular sometimes forming colonies aquatic organisms The cell of such a diatomean is enclosed within a pillbox like shell of silica The next Figures are photographs

    Original URL path: http://www.metafysica.nl/turing/promorphology_2.html (2016-02-01)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Promorphology IIa
    didyma The two valves of the shell Valve form and position of raphes of the hypotheca lower image are the mirror image of the epitheca upper image After HUSTEDT F 1956 Kieselalgen Diatomeen In the following we will discuss the above mentioned diatom Eunotia and some other diatoms in orther to expound the symmetries that prevail in them and how to assess them promorphologically When a diatom is viewed in valve view through a microscope we see the outer side of the top valve when the microscope is adjusted high while we see the inner side of the bottom valve when the microscope is adjusted low Both valves of each species under scrutinity are considered to be exactly equal i e their s h a p e is considered equal While having this identical shape they could however differ in their respective sculptures and in the position and structure of the r a p h e Before proceeding we lay down the following Whereby all this only refers to our ensuing promorphological considerations concerning some diatom species that illustrate in their basic form deviations from the Rhombic Octahedron That valve that at that moment of observation lies a b o v e i e towards the observer is called A That valve that at that moment of observation lies u n d e r i e away from the observer is called B See next Figure Figure 7 Direction of observation of a diatom in valve view Turned towards viewer face is called A Turned away from viewer face is called B Also when the object is flipped i e also when the two valves swap their position the turned towards viewer face will be denoted by A while the turned away from viewer face will be denoted by B So sometimes the epitheca will be associated with the symbol A sometimes the hypotheca During the consideration of the w h o l e cell i e both valves or both epitheca and hypotheca for that matter applies Of A we always see only the o u t e r side Of B we always see only the i n n e r side We can never see the inner side of A Recall that A is not a particular valve A refers to the position with respect to the observer This is so because when we flip the cell upside down i e the set comprising its two valves then A becomes B and vice versa When on the other hand we consider o n e s i n g l e valve then we can also always see the inner side of the valve after having it flipped upside down i e we can see its outer and inner side So we must discriminate between a consideration of one valve only and of the cell s two valves at the same time After having set all this we can now proceed with more detailed symmetry considerations Eunotia didyma Figure 6 Figure 8 The two valves of Eunotia didyma in valve view as far as their symmetry is concerned Each valve has as its only symmetry element a mirror plane perpendicular to the plane of the drawing and as such it is symbolized by the hooked black line i e the form of this line expresses the symmetry of the valve The appended short red line symbolizes the third spatial dimension i e features of the valve situated along that dimension the three spatial dimensions are perpendicular to each other It also symbolizes the outer side or inner side of the valve If the red line is directed upwards as seen in the drawing then we have to do with the outer side of the given valve if on the other hand it is directed downwards as seen in the drawing then we have to do with the inner side of the given valve The red line being directed upwards as seen in the drawing in fact is supposed to point right to the observer while the red line being directed downwards as seen in the drawing in fact is supposed to point right away from the observer In both cases it is supposed to be p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the plane of the drawing When we want to assess the symmetric relationship between the valves we must compare outer side with outer side or inner side with inner side When we flip B vertically we will see its outer side because inner and outer sides are swapped Figure 9 In order to be able to compare an outer side with an outer side or an inner side with an inner side we flip B about the axis indicated which means that we rotate B about that axis by 180 0 The outer side of it will now become visible Indicated by the red line being directed upwards So the result is the outer side of B When we now compare the outer side of A with the outer side of B we see that they are related by mirror symmetry Figure 10 The outer side of A and the outer side of B are symmetric with respect to each other The red lines are supposed to stand perpendicular to the plane of the drawing Recall that they represent the third spatial dimension Here they both point right to the observer In order to explicitly show that the two valves as they are with respect to their outer side are symmetrically related to each other we show that when one of them is mirrored the result will be such that it is identical to the other valve i e we have complete covering or in other words the valves will be mapped onto each other by subjecting each of them to mirror symmetry Figure 11 The outer side of A and the outer side of B are symmetric with respect to each other The red lines are supposed to stand perpendicular to the plane of the drawing Recall that they represent the third spatial dimension Here they both point right to the observer In order to show this symmetry we create a mirror image of one of the valves here B and indeed see that the result is exactly identical i e congruent to the other other valve A The mirror operation does not swap inner side with outer side indicated by the red line When we do the same with valve A then we will get a same result The mirror image of A will be completely identical congruent to B As we can see from Figure 6 and from Figure 10 the mirror plane situated between the valves is not the only mirror plane another one runs across the valves as the next Figure illustrates Figure 12 nbsp Eunotia didyma The two valves of the shell Valve form and position of raphes of the hypotheca lower image are the mirror image of the epitheca upper image There is yet another mirror plane as indicated by the red line the plane is normal to the plane of the drawing and normal to the other mirror plane A third symmetry element is now implied by these two mirror planes namely a 2 fold rotation axis coinciding with the line of intersection of the two mirror planes Consequently the stereometric body representing these symmetries is a single amphitect pyramid with two antimers a Rhombic Pyramid the basic form of the Autopola Orthostaura diphragma diphragma because the biological object consists of t w o instead of four antimers The next Figure depicts this basic form Figure 13 Perspectivic view of a Rhombic pyramid Left image Rhombic pyramid with t w o antimers representing the basic form of the D i p h r a g m a Right image Rhombic pyramid with four antimers basic form of the Tetraphragma The left image of the above Figure symbolizes promorphologically the cell with its two valves of Eunotia didyma One valve i e its promorphological symbol is colored blue the other yellow So in the case of Eunotia didyma the Rhombic Octahedron is deformed such that one half of it is removed resulting in a Rhombic Pyramid i e a single pyramid of which the base is a rhombus Pinnularia flamma Figure 14 Figure 14 nbsp Pinnularia flamma The two valves of the shell The course of the raphe is opposite on both valves The valves as drawn must be imagined to be superimposed upon each other The 2 fold rotation axis is indicated by a thin red line and should be imagined to run between the valves It is the only symmetry element of the cell After HUSTEDT F 1956 Kieselalgen Diatomeen The diatom Pinnularia flamma as depicted above possesses when all details especially those of the raphe are taken into account only one symmetry element namely a two fold rotation axis running between the valves along their short diameter This rotation axis is indicated as a red line in the above Figure The symmetry can be symbolized by the following diagram representing the girdle view of the cell i e we now look along the direction of the 2 fold rotation axis Figure 15 nbsp Symmetry diagram of Pinnularia flamma Girdle view The two valves of the shell are symbolized by the two hooked lines one above the other The 2 fold rotation axis is indicated by a small blue circle in the center of the image and should be imagined to run between the valves It is the only symmetry element of the cell The short red lines project into the third dimension normal to the plane of the drawing They represent features of the raphe and at the same time show that the whole structure does not contain a center of symmetry See next Figure Figure 16 Center of Symmetry The item possessing a center of symmetry and only a center of symmetry consists of two asymmetric faces related to each other by a center of symmetry which means that every point of such a face is reflected in a same point the center of symmetry indicated by the red lines and their point of intersection Every part of the item can also be found at the opposite side of that point at the same distance The symmetry diagram of Pinnularia flamma as depicted in Figure 15 can now be further compressed resulting in the following Figure 17 nbsp Compressed symmetry diagram of Pinnularia flamma Girdle view The 2 fold rotation axis is normal to the plane of the drawing and is indicated by the small red circle We shall now elaborate further on the symmetry content of a cell of Pinnularia flamma making sure that we do not confuse inner and outer sides of the valves The next Figure is a diagram expressing the symmetry of the valves as they are depicted in Figure 14 Figure 18 nbsp Diagram symbolizing the symmetry of Pinnularia flamma as depicted in Figure 14 We will now flip B in order to see its outer side See next Figure Figure 19 nbsp Diagram symbolizing the flipping of valve B of Pinnularia flamma about the axis indicated in blue i e rotating it about that axis by 180 0 resulting in the outer side of B We now have the outer side of A and the outerside of B Figure 20 nbsp The outer side of A and the outer side of B As can be seen from the above Figure the outer side of A is not symmetrically related with the outer side of B So there is no mirror plane situated between the two valves of Pinnularia flamma If we find a symmetry operation that transduces the outer side of A and the inner side of B into each other i e maps them onto each other then we have found a symmetry element of the whole cell here represented by its two valves Let s try to transduce the inner side of B into the outer side of A Figure 21 nbsp After rotating the inner side of B about the axis indicated in blue by 180 0 we get the outer side of B but with its apices exchanged And now we see that this outer side of B but with its apices exchanged is exactly identical to the outer side of A And this means that rotation of the inner side of B by 180 0 about the axis indicated in blue results in the outer side of A In the above Figure we see that the inner side of B can be transduced into the outer side of A by a rotation about the axis indicated in blue It is clear that the same applies when we subject the outer side of A to that same rotation It will be transduced into the inner side of B And this means that if we subject the whole cell as represented by its two valves to a rotation of 180 0 about the mentioned axis then this whole cell will be transduced into itself i e it will be mapped onto itself and this in turn means that this 2 fold rotation axis is a symmetry element of the whole cell of Pinnularia flamma In all this we did not consider the girdle bands but these do not limit the cell s symmetry We will now subject the whole cell represented by its two silicified valves to a rotation by 180 0 about the axis as established above i e as in Figure 20 The cell should be mapped onto itself We ll start with a symmetry diagram of the the cell its two valves as was given earlier and which corresponds to Figure 14 and then subject this whole to the operation mentioned Figure 22 nbsp Diagram symbolizing the symmetry of Pinnularia flamma as depicted in Figure 14 The 2 fold axis of rotation is indicated in blue The whole structure is rotated 180 0 about that axis The valves are transduced as indicated by the arrows Thereby B becomes A green arrows and A becomes B pink arrows If we rotate the whole structure 180 0 about the indicated axis which runs between the two valves then B comes to lie up and consequently becomes A and should be depicted as lying above A comes to lie down and consequently becomes B and should be depicted as lying below In the above Figure we can indeed see that the whole structure is mapped onto itself so this 2 fold rotation axis is indeed a symmetry element of the whole structure Because there are no other symmetry elements present the symmetry content of the whole structure i e the whole cell can be symbolized by 2 The geometric body representing this symmetry content is a deformation of the Rhombic Octahedron such that it becomes a two fold amphitect gyroid pyramid Figure 23 and the promorph is consequently that of the Heterogyrostaura dimera Stauraxonia heteropola gyrostaura When you click the link you will get to the Heterogyrostaura The dimera can be seen mentioned and pictured there The significance of using this link is to see where you are in the Promorphological System Figure 23 Slightly oblique top view of an amphitect gyroid pyramid with two antimers Heterogyrostaura dimera Rotation of the mirror image of one of the valves seems to transduce this valve into the other one but this is not a genuine covering because inner side and outer side are exchanged implying that the result of rotation of the mirror image is not identical to the other valve The next Figure illustrates this Figure 24 Rotation of the mirror image of one valve does not produce the other valve Nitzschia sigma Pleurosigma and Gyrosigma Figure 25 Nitzschia sigma Upper and lower valves After HUSTEDT F 1956 Kieselalgen Diatomeen The Rhombic Octahedron is still further deformed in the Diatom Nitzschia sigma The latter has a sigmoid shape Figure 25 but because of the position of the raphe on either valve its only symmetry element is a center of symmetry So Nitzschia sigma promorphologically belongs to the Anaxonia centrostigma Pleurosigma Figure 26 and especially Gyrosigma For the latter see HERE also derive from a Rhombic Octahedron Like in Pinnularia flamma they possess a 2 fold rotation axis but now this axis runs from valve to valve i e along the diatom s pervalvarous axis In addition to this axis they possess a mirror plane perpendicular to it so their total symmetry content can be indicated by 2 m Their stereometric basic form is consequently that of the Allosigmostaura duamphimera Stauraxonia homopola sigmostaura geometrically represented by an amphitect gyroid bipyramid The change in main axis from Pinnularia Eunotia to Pleurosigma Gyrosigma reflects the change in promorph from Gyrostaura Stauraxonia heteropola Autopola Stauraxonia heteropola to Sigmostaura Stauraxonia homopola Figure 26 Pleurosigma Valve view After HUSTEDT F 1956 Kieselalgen Diatomeen Nitzschia sigma It is perhaps useful to dwell a little longer on the symmetry of Nitzschia sigma Figure 25 Also here we will symbolize the symmetry and shape of its two valves like we did with respect to Pinnularia flamma Figure 27 Symmetry scheme of Nitzschia sigma Upper and lower valve See Figure 25 The dashed line symbolizes the position of the raphe If we take the mirror image of the outer side of A and rotate it 180 0 about an axis perpendicular to the mirror plane that was involved in the mirroring just mentioned then the result will be identical to the inner side of B See the next Figure Figure 28 Demonstration of the symmetry of a cell of Nitzschia sigma Reflection in a mirror plane m followed by a rotation of 180 0 about an axis perpendicular to m transduces the outer side of A into the inner side

    Original URL path: http://www.metafysica.nl/turing/promorphology_2a.html (2016-02-01)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Promorphology III
    fact that the adaptive relationships of this morphological individuality are absolutely diverse and that there is no limit as to the development of the organs as also the cells into the most different directions Moreover the complicated composition of the higher organs out of complexes of lower organs the utmost complex entanglement of cell fusions cytocormi homoplastic organs heteroplastic organs organ systems and organ apparatus can bring about every basic form The majority of animal organs perhaps belongs like the majority of cells to the amorphous basic form of the Anaxonia Anaxonia acentra Next the lower Polyaxonia and especially the Monaxonia are wide spread The homopolar as well as the heteropolar Monaxonia form the promorph of many organs But also the Stauraxonia the homopolar bipyramids as well as the heteropolar single pyramids are often very clearly expressed in many organs within the several phyla of all three kingdoms animals plants and protists Generally there is not much to say about the predominance of certain promorphs in certain organs because the differences of adaptational conditions and in virtue of that the modified promorphs are generally too diverse We can only note that the lateral complex organs the leaves of plants the extremities of animals show a predominance of dipleural forms and that in plant leaves we mainly see Eudipleura while in animal extremities we mainly see Dysdipleura With respect to organ complexes such as organ systems and organ apparatus we can say that their promorph often is determined by the promorph of the whole body Organs that develop freely on body surfaces most often show clearly expressed monaxonic forms like for instance hairs spines thorns Often however also clearly expressed eudipleural forms occur in these cases like feathers and scales And those organs which we above had signified as paramers and

    Original URL path: http://www.metafysica.nl/turing/promorphology_3.html (2016-02-01)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Promorphology IV
    to each other which one should not expect of metamers The orientation of the latter is normally the same i e they all point in the same direction If we do not accept that the two single pyramids necessarily represent two metamers and consider the bipyramid as a whole then an antimer must be conceived as the next Figure indicates Figure 2 The Quadratic Octahedron quadratic bipyramid as basic form of the Isostaura octopleura The equatorial plane is a square One antimer is taken out To describe antimers of bipyramidal forms Stauraxonia homopola however it is more convenient to consider the constituent single pyramids apart which boils down to consider just one constituent single pyramid and determine its antimers IN ALL THIS WE MUST REALIZE THAT WE CONSIDER THE ANTIMERS AS THEY ARE PRESENT IN THE GIVEN ORGANIC INDIVIDUAL AND NOT AS WE FIND THEM IN THE STEREOMETRIC REPRESENTATION OF THE PROMORPH OF THAT ORGANIC INDIVIDUAL So according to the convenience just mentioned we will consider that part of the given organic and promorphologically bipyramidal individual that promorphologically corresponds to one of the two single bipyramids and consider the antimers of such a single pyramid Such a pyramid consists of at least three antimers These must be themselves also pyramids and they must moreover be three fold pyramids This is because each antimer of every bipyramidal organic form but also of just a pyramidal form think of starfishes as it is in its organic reality has a bilateral form as it turns out in organisms such that its basic form is that of a three fold pyramid regular or irregular In the Isostaura regular bipyramids the promorph of every antimer is an isosceles pyramid Half a rhombic pyramid while in the Allostaura amphitect bipyramids they are either an isosceles or unequally sided three fold pyramid The next Figure shows an antimer from one of the pyramids constituting the bipyramid as it is obtained from the promorph of the whole As such this antimer is a four fold pyramid instead of a three fold pyramid The organic part that such an antimer represents is however such that its promorph is a three fold pyramid As in bipyramids Stauraxonia homopola this also applies to pyramids Stauraxonia heteropola Figure 3 Slightly oblique top view of a five fold regular pyramid One antimer is taken out It is as such a four fold pyramid In the homostauric heteropoles Stauraxonia heteropola homostaura of which the basic form is the single regular pyramid materialized by all regular radiate animals and flowers every antimer must promorphologically be represented by an isosceles pyramid half a rhombic pyramid Finally in the autopolar heterostaurs Heteropola heterostaura autopola the highest form group of the Centraxonia of which the basic form is the single amphitect pyramid materialized for instance in Ctenophores and Madrepores Madreporaria Corals the promorph of every antimer must either be an isosceles pyramid for instance both lateral antimers of the madrepores right and left one or an unequally sided

    Original URL path: http://www.metafysica.nl/turing/promorphology_4.html (2016-02-01)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Promorphology V
    homostaura or to the Heterostaura allopola amphipleura In Molluscs which as actual bionts all are just metamers i e they like all echinoderms occur as single metamers the shell bearing representatives like snails adopt a spiral form and must promorphologically be classified as Spiraxonia isogonia equiangular spirals They are pyramidal or conical forms having their main axis spirally curved according to the equiangular spiral most conspicuous so in their shells The P r o t a x o n i a i e bodies possessing one conspicuous axis the main axis sometimes having this axis in addition to some lesser conspicuous axes cross axes consist of three divisions Monaxonia bodies possessing only one axis Stauraxonia bodies possessing in addition to a main axis some other axes cross axes perpendicular to that main axis and Spiraxonia bodies with their main axis spirally curved Other Molluscs like slugs and most of the recent cephalopods octopus squid assume a dipleural Dipleura promorph When on the other hand the metamers occur as subordinated form individuals of a person fifth order form individual as in all vertebrates and arthropods insects shrimps and the like and in many higher plants we observe that the number of different promorphs which are realized in them is more limited Here we see that their promorph is often the same as that of the person which they constitute So in the regular flowers of higher plants we find the homostauric form Stauraxonia heteropola homostaura regular pyramids in the bilateral symmetric animals and plant off shoots the heterostauric form Stauraxonia heteropola heterostaura irregular pyramids But there are exceptions to this rule that the metamers have the same promorph as the person which they constitute like for instance the different metamers leaf rings of a single higher plant flower The metamers constituting such a flower often have different promorphs So we often see in the five fold flowers of the Papilionaceans Labiates etc that the promorph of the metamer of the calyx is a five fold regular pyramid Homostaura while the other metamers of the flower have as their promorph half a ten fold amphitect pyramid Pentamphipleura In the same way we see in many annelids earthworms and the like the promorph of most metamers of the body to belong to the Eutetrapleura while the front metamers especially those of the head belong promorphologically to the Eudipleura In Taenia a tape worm is the other way round its head tetractinote Stauraxonia heteropola homostaura Isopola tetractinota regular four fold pyramid while the metamers that follow Proglottids are diphragmic Stauraxonia heteropola heterostaura autopola Orthostaura diphragma In these cases where several metamers of one and the same person have different promorphs always the highest promorph i e the most differentiated promorph is the promorph of the whole person This is also geometrically correct because the symmetry of a whole object is equal to the symmetry of that part that has the lowest symmetry when compared with that of the other parts Because the promorph of

    Original URL path: http://www.metafysica.nl/turing/promorphology_5.html (2016-02-01)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Promorphology VI
    much greater promorphological diversity than the antimers do In the several Classes and Phyla of the animal and plant kingdom the promorph of the person is very diverse Many of them are already mentioned in the Promorphological System so here we do not have to list them in full Just in general we can note that in all higher animals vertebrates arthropods the Zygopleural form Allopola zygopleura i e the isosceles pyramid is the predominant promorph thereby as the most developed form the dipleural Zygopleura dipleura and as the lesser developed form the tetrapleural Zygopleura tetrapleura In higher plant persons the predominant promorphs are those of the Amphipleura and of the homostauric heteropoles Stauraxonia Heteropola homostaura but also those of the autopolar heterostaurs Stauraxonia heteropola Heterostaura autopola The fact that often the promorph of the constituent metamers in one and the same person is different i e the constituent metamers display different promorphs for instance with respect to the different leaf rings of a flower has been mentioned earlier It was added that in these cases always the most differentiated promorph must be set as the promorph of the whole person We must further note that often the promorph of one and the same person can be different in different life stages of the individual insofar as the one or the other metamer with its indicative promorph is predominantly or solely developed In this way the higher plant flower sexual person often has a very different promorph from the corresponding fruit that develops from it In the Crucifers for instance the promorph of the flower belongs to the Tetraphragma Stauraxonia heteropola heterostaura autopola Orthostaura tetraphragma while the fruit belongs to the Diphragma Stauraxonia heteropola heterostaura autopola Orthostaura diphragma In the Papilionaceans is the form of the flower pentamphipleural Pentamphipleura that

    Original URL path: http://www.metafysica.nl/turing/promorphology_6.html (2016-02-01)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Promorphology VII
    of the colony especially the three fold and four fold pyramid appears to be common But also very commonly in simple colonies as it is the case in most composed colonies the cross axes are not clearly or not at all determined and then we must assess them as Monaxonia diplopola Egg Cone or truncated cone As totally irregular or asymmetric colonies we can assess only those plant colonies in which no axis is definitely expressed in which for instance the main shoot does not develop while the lateral off shoots appear irregularly in all directions They promorphologically belong to the Anaxonia According to our expositions concerning Persons and true Colonies i e colonies Cormi in the tectological sense which means that each of them is composed of true persons which themselves clearly consist of metamers and antimers there seem to be no t r u e Colonies in the animal kingdom Generally the homostauric heteropolar forms regular pyramids in plant colonies appear as rare exceptions with respect to the great majority of those colonies in which either the diplopolar monaxonic form Monaxonia diplopola or no promorph at all is expressed which then should be classified as Anaxonia So the Colonies or Cormi as morphological form individuals of the sixth and highest order do not in any way express a corresponding profusion of different promorphs or even just a predominance of higher forms Rather they stay in both respects far behind the fifth and fourth order form individuals and rather connect to the lowest individuality forms cells and especially organs which often look colony like With the treatment of the basic forms of Colonies or sixth order morphological organic individuals we have finally come to an end of our total exposition of O r g a n i c P

    Original URL path: http://www.metafysica.nl/turing/promorphology_7.html (2016-02-01)
    Open archived version from archive



  •