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  • TNO ThermoGIS
    the sedimentary aquifer the gain of retrieved energy would be the highest when heat is extracted from the deepest possible depth However aquifer flow performance deteriorates strongly with depth as a consequence of mechanical compaction and reduction of porosity due to diagenesis A minimum production depth zmin shallower than 600 meter is concidered to be excellent orange shallower than 1200 m very good yellow shallower than 1800 m good green

    Original URL path: http://www.thermogis.nl/performance.html (2015-08-10)
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  • TNO ThermoGIS
    3 have been used to construct sediment thickness The sediment thickness dataset is combined with limits of the aquifer bearing sedimentary basins to produce an aquifer depth map Considering solely conventional use of direct heat the map is cut off to a maximum depth of 3km zmax demonstrate that large areas on the globe have aquifer potential 1 Penwell 1984 www penwellbooks com 2 Laske Masters 1997 A Global Digital

    Original URL path: http://www.thermogis.nl/sediment.html (2015-08-10)
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  • TNO ThermoGIS
    volcanic activity 4 For active and historic volcanoes we adopted a locally elevated heat flow of 140 mW m 2 5 For other Holocene and younger volcanoes we adopted a locally elevated heat flow of 80 mW m 2 Regions in the arctic with no heat flow data have been filled with an average value of 50mW m 2 The heat flow underneath continents is about 200 EJ y E

    Original URL path: http://www.thermogis.nl/heatflow.html (2015-08-10)
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  • TNO ThermoGIS
    definition T T 0 dT dz x depth Where T is the temperature at depth z in degrees Centigrade with a geothermal gradient of dT dz In this study we used for T 0 the averaged onshore surface temperature measured monthly by NASA over the year 2002 1 The grids for the monthly surface temperature were combined to get an annual average surface temperature 1 NASA Nearth Earth Observations neo

    Original URL path: http://www.thermogis.nl/surface.html (2015-08-10)
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  • TNO ThermoGIS
    is the geothermal gradient C km 1 q is heat flow mW m 2 and k is average conductivity of sediments 2 W m 1 K 1 In turn the maximum expected production temperature at the depth of the basins has been determined using the geothermal gradient T max T 0 cz max Where T 0 is the average surface temperature NASA 2002 and z max the sediment base with

    Original URL path: http://www.thermogis.nl/maxprod.html (2015-08-10)
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  • TNO ThermoGIS
    production depth is defined by the production temperature for that particular application The minimum depth at which the production temperature reached is determined from the equation z min T prod T 0 c Where z min is the minimum production depth km T 0 is annually averaged surface temperature and c is the geothermal gradient C km 1 The latter has been derived from the global heat flow map c

    Original URL path: http://www.thermogis.nl/minprod.html (2015-08-10)
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  • TNO ThermoGIS
    that heat can be used from depths where the temperature is at least 40 C higher than the average surface temperature with a minimum of 0 C This minimum production depth is denoted z min km Given the depth range h km from which heat can be produced from z min to 3 km depth and its average temperature T prod derived from the thermal gradient the theoretical potential is equal to P theory h T prod T out γ Where P theory is the theoretical potential expressed in PJ km 2 P stands for peta and corresponds to 10 15 T out equals the re injection temperature which is assumed 10 degrees higher than surface temperature with a minimum of 0 C The parameter γ is bulk heat capacity 106 J m 3 of aquifers set to a value of 2 8 The global theoretical potential adds up to 2 77x106 EJ E stands for exa and corresponds to 10 18 For comparison the global energy consumption in 2008 was 478 EJ y Although geothermal heat is locally extracted at higher rates than natural heat flow can renew up to 40 of our energy demand can be delivered from

    Original URL path: http://www.thermogis.nl/theoretical.html (2015-08-10)
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  • TNO ThermoGIS
    from Locally practical recovery is up to 10 times higher than the theoretical potential Consequently it is likely that theoretical map figures should be multiplied by a factor of 10 to give an estimate of the local practical upside At cooler latitudes such as the Netherlands heating of a house requires in the order of 0 05 TJ y Heating of 1 km 2 of greenhouse requires about 1200 TJ

    Original URL path: http://www.thermogis.nl/technical.html (2015-08-10)
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